Role of Marrow Adipocytes in Regulation of Energy Metabolism and Bone Homeostasis
Purpose of review
The goal of this review is to gain a better understanding of marrow adipocyte development, its regulation of energy, and its characterization responsible for bone homeostasis.
Despite major advances in uncovering the complex association of bone-fat in the marrow, the underlying basic biological process of adipose tissue development, as well as its interaction with bone homeostasis in pathophysiological conditions, is still not well understood.
This review identifies many pro- and anti-osteogenic factors secreted by adipocytes to play a role in the manipulating the fate of mesenchymal stem cells as well as the osteoblastic activity during bone remodeling. It also addresses the function of adipose tissue capable of negative regulation of the hematopoietic microenvironment to influence the bone quantity and the nature of bone homeostasis.
KeywordsMarrow adipocyte Adipokine Bone homoeostasis Bone cells Stem cells
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Jillian Cornish, Tao Wang, and Jian-Ming Lin declare no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance
- 3.•• Lecka-Czernik B, Stechschulte LA, Czernik PJ, Sherman SB, Huang S, Krings A. Marrow adipose tissue: skeletal location, sexual dimorphism, and response to sex steroid deficiency. Front Endocrinol. 2017;8:188. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2017.00188. The paper reveals the close relationship exists between bone marrow beige adipocytes and bone mass in limbs and sex steroid deficiency also impacts this positive correlation. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Bartelt A, Beil FT, Schinke T, Roeser K, Ruether W, Heeren J, et al. Apolipoprotein E-dependent inverse regulation of vertebral bone and adipose tissue mass in C57Bl/6 mice: modulation by diet-induced obesity. Bone. 2010;47(4):736–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2010.07.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 10.•• Wu M, Wang Y, Shao J, Wang J, Chen W, Li Y. Cbfβ governs osteoblast−adipocyte lineage commitment through enhancing β-catenin signaling and suppressing adipogenesis gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2017;114(38):10119–24. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1619294114. This research suggests that the osteoblast lineage commitment is regulated by core-binding factor subunit beta (Cbfβ) through enhancing β-catenin signaling in mesenchymal stem cells. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 16.Kapur S, Amoui M, Kesavan C, Wang X, Mohan S, Baylink DJ, et al. Leptin receptor (Lepr) is a negative modulator of bone mechanosensitivity and genetic variations in Lepr may contribute to the differential osteogenic response to mechanical stimulation in the C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ pair of mouse strains. J Biol Chem. 2010;285(48):37607–18. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.169714.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 27.Cawthorn WP, Scheller EL, Learman BS, Parlee SD, Simon BR, Mori H, et al. Bone marrow adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that contributes to increased circulating adiponectin during caloric restriction. Cell Metab. 2014;20(2):368–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2014.06.003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 38.•• Adler BJ, Green DE, Pagnotti GM, Chan ME, Rubin CT. High fat diet rapidly suppresses B lymphopoiesis by disrupting the supportive capacity of the bone marrow niche. PLOS ONE. 2014;9(3):e90639. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090639. The results of this study indicate that obesity is a high risk factor for the defective leukogenesis of B cells by suppressing the expression of Il-7. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 41.Roggia C, Gao Y, Cenci S, Weitzmann MN, Toraldo G, Isaia G, et al. Up-regulation of TNF-producing T cells in the bone marrow: a key mechanism by which estrogen deficiency induces bone loss in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98(24):13960–5. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.251534698.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 42.McLaughlin T, Liu LF, Lamendola C, Shen L, Morton J, Rivas H, et al. T-cell profile in adipose tissue is associated with insulin resistance and systemic inflammation in humans. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014;34(12):2637–43. https://doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.304636.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar