Mucosal Melanoma: a Literature Review

  • Simon Skovsted Yde
  • Pia Sjoegren
  • Martin Heje
  • Lars B. Stolle
Melanoma (RJ Sullivan, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Melanoma


Purpose of review

Mucosal melanoma is of great interest due to its aggressive behavior and less favorable prognosis. The literature is mainly case reports and case series. Here, we will collect the knowledge on mucosal melanoma from the last decade and review the literature. The main focus is being site-specific clinical features, treatment, and prognosis.

Recent findings

The use of immunotherapy gain ground as for others subsets of melanoma. Anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/ PD-L1 blockade in mucosal melanoma have been evaluated in recent studies. Clinical trials are ongoing.


The etiology of mucosal melanomas remains unknown. Head and neck mucosal melanomas are most common. Wide excision surgery is the treatment of choice. The effect of adjuvant therapy on survival remains questionable due to the limited knowledge. Radiotherapy seems to give better local control. The overall five-year survival rate for mucosal melanomas is 0–45%. Recent data indicates that this may be improved by the immunotherapy in the years to come.


Mucosal melanoma Treatment Surgery Immunotherapy Checkpoint inhibitors CTLA-4 PD-1 PD-L1 Ipilimumab Nivolumab Pembrolizumab 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Simon Skovsted Yde, Pia Sjoegren, Martin Heje, and Lars B. Stolle declare they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon Skovsted Yde
    • 1
  • Pia Sjoegren
    • 1
  • Martin Heje
    • 1
  • Lars B. Stolle
    • 1
  1. 1.Plastic Surgical Research Unit, Department of Plastic SurgeryAarhus University HospitalAarhus CDenmark

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