Angiotensin-(1–7) and Alamandine on Experimental Models of Hypertension and Atherosclerosis

  • Fernando Pedro de Souza-Neto
  • Melissa Carvalho Santuchi
  • Mario de Morais e Silva
  • Maria José Campagnole-Santos
  • Rafaela Fernandes da Silva
Pathogenesis of Hypertension (W Elliott and R Santos, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Pathogenesis of Hypertension


Purpose of Review

The purpose of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on the role of angiotensin-(1–7) [Ang-(1–7)] and alamandine in experimental hypertension and atherosclerosis.

Recent Findings

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a very complex system, composed of a cascade of enzymes, peptides, and receptors, known to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension and atherosclerosis. Ang-(1–7), identified and characterized in 1987, and alamandine, discovered 16 years after, are the newest two main effector molecules from the RAS, protecting the vascular system against hypertension and atherosclerosis.


While the beneficial effects of Ang-(1–7) have been widely studied in several experimental models of hypertension, much less studies were performed in experimental models of atherosclerosis. Alamandine has shown similar vascular effects to Ang-(1–7), namely, endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation mediated by nitric oxide and hypotensive effects in experimental hypertension. There are few studies on the effects of alamandine on atherosclerosis.


Renin-angiotensin system Angiotensin-(1–7) Mas receptor Alamandine MrgD receptor; hypertension Atherosclerosis 

Abbreviations and acronyms


Two-kidney, one clip






Angiotensin-converting enzyme


Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2


Transfected plasmids for ACE2

Ang A

Angiotensin A

Ang I

Angiotensin I

Ang II

Angiotensin II



Ang IV









Atrial natriuretric peptide


ApolE knockout


Angiotensin receptor type I


Angiotensin receptor type II


arginine vasopressin


B-cell lymphoma 2


basolateral amygdala


body weight



CHO cells

Chinese hamster ovary cells


cardiovascular diseases


caudal ventrolateral medulla


Diastolic blood pressure




Deoxycorticosterone acetate salt




Guanosine monophosphate


subunit of phagocyte NADPH oxidase


High frequency


hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system




Heart rate


Human umbilical vein endothelial cells


heart weight


Intercellular adhesion molecule-1






Mean arterial pressure


Mas receptor


Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1




Matrix metalloproteinases


Matrix metalloproteinases 3


Matrix metalloproteinases 8


Matrixmetalloproteinases 9


Hypertensive transgenic rats


Mas-related G protein-coupled type D


Nuclear factor of activated T-cells


Nitric oxide


New Zealand white

p38 MAPK

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases


Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1


Renin-angiotensin system


Reactive oxygen species


Renal sympathetic nerve activity


Rostral ventrolateral medulla


Skeletal α-actin


Serum amyloid A


Systolic blood pressure




Spontaneously hypertensive rats


Superoxide dismutase


Transforming growth factor-1


Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2


vascular cell adhesion protein-1


Vascular smooth muscle cells


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript. All the authors have declared that there is nothing to disclosure.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando Pedro de Souza-Neto
    • 1
  • Melissa Carvalho Santuchi
    • 1
  • Mario de Morais e Silva
    • 1
  • Maria José Campagnole-Santos
    • 1
  • Rafaela Fernandes da Silva
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biological SciencesFederal University of Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil

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