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Angiotensin-(1–7) and Alamandine on Experimental Models of Hypertension and Atherosclerosis

  • Fernando Pedro de Souza-Neto
  • Melissa Carvalho Santuchi
  • Mario de Morais e Silva
  • Maria José Campagnole-Santos
  • Rafaela Fernandes da Silva
Pathogenesis of Hypertension (W Elliott and R Santos, Section Editors)
  • 221 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Pathogenesis of Hypertension

Abstract

Purpose of Review

The purpose of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on the role of angiotensin-(1–7) [Ang-(1–7)] and alamandine in experimental hypertension and atherosclerosis.

Recent Findings

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a very complex system, composed of a cascade of enzymes, peptides, and receptors, known to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension and atherosclerosis. Ang-(1–7), identified and characterized in 1987, and alamandine, discovered 16 years after, are the newest two main effector molecules from the RAS, protecting the vascular system against hypertension and atherosclerosis.

Summary

While the beneficial effects of Ang-(1–7) have been widely studied in several experimental models of hypertension, much less studies were performed in experimental models of atherosclerosis. Alamandine has shown similar vascular effects to Ang-(1–7), namely, endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation mediated by nitric oxide and hypotensive effects in experimental hypertension. There are few studies on the effects of alamandine on atherosclerosis.

Keywords

Renin-angiotensin system Angiotensin-(1–7) Mas receptor Alamandine MrgD receptor; hypertension Atherosclerosis 

Abbreviations and acronyms

2K1C

Two-kidney, one clip

Ang-(1–7)

Angiotensin-(1–7)

A-779

D-Ala7-Angiotensin-(1–7)

ACE

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

ACE2

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2

AdACE2

Transfected plasmids for ACE2

Ang A

Angiotensin A

Ang I

Angiotensin I

Ang II

Angiotensin II

Ang III

Angiotensin-(2–8)

Ang IV

Angiotensin-(3–8)

Ang-(1–4)

Angiotensin-(1–4)

Ang-(1–5)

Angiotensin-(1–5)

Ang-(1–9)

Angiotensin-(1–9)

ANP

Atrial natriuretric peptide

ApoE-KO

ApolE knockout

AT1R

Angiotensin receptor type I

AT2R

Angiotensin receptor type II

AVP

arginine vasopressin

Bcl2

B-cell lymphoma 2

BLA

basolateral amygdala

BW

body weight

CAT

Catalase

CHO cells

Chinese hamster ovary cells

CVD

cardiovascular diseases

CVLM

caudal ventrolateral medulla

DBP

Diastolic blood pressure

DKO

Double-knockout

DOCA-salt

Deoxycorticosterone acetate salt

D-Pro7Ang-(1-7)

D-Pro7Angiotensin-(1-7)

GMP

Guanosine monophosphate

Gp91

subunit of phagocyte NADPH oxidase

HF

High frequency

HNS

hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system

HPβCD

2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin

HR

Heart rate

HUVEC

Human umbilical vein endothelial cells

HW

heart weight

ICAM-1

Intercellular adhesion molecule-1

IL-6

Interleukin-6

IL-12

Interleukin-12

MAP

Mean arterial pressure

MasR

Mas receptor

MCP-1

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

MDA

Malondialdehyde

MMPs

Matrix metalloproteinases

MMP-3

Matrix metalloproteinases 3

MMP-8

Matrix metalloproteinases 8

MMP-9

Matrixmetalloproteinases 9

(mRen2)27

Hypertensive transgenic rats

MrgD

Mas-related G protein-coupled type D

NFAT

Nuclear factor of activated T-cells

NO

Nitric oxide

NZW

New Zealand white

p38 MAPK

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases

PAI-1

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

RAS

Renin-angiotensin system

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RSNA

Renal sympathetic nerve activity

RVLM

Rostral ventrolateral medulla

SAA

Skeletal α-actin

SaA

Serum amyloid A

SBP

Systolic blood pressure

SD

Sprague-Dawley

SHR

Spontaneously hypertensive rats

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TGF-1

Transforming growth factor-1

TIMP-2

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2

VCAM-1

vascular cell adhesion protein-1

VSMC

Vascular smooth muscle cells

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript. All the authors have declared that there is nothing to disclosure.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando Pedro de Souza-Neto
    • 1
  • Melissa Carvalho Santuchi
    • 1
  • Mario de Morais e Silva
    • 1
  • Maria José Campagnole-Santos
    • 1
  • Rafaela Fernandes da Silva
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biological SciencesFederal University of Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil

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