Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 292–303 | Cite as

Interventions to Improve Linkage to HIV Care in the Era of “Treat All” in Sub-Saharan Africa: a Systematic Review

  • Nicole KellyEmail author
  • Werner Maokola
  • Omobola Mudasiru
  • Sandra I. McCoy
Implementation Science (E Geng, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Implementation Science


Purpose of the Review

In 2015, antiretroviral therapy (ART) was recommended for all people living with HIV (PLHIV) regardless of CD4 count (“Treat All”). To better understand how to improve linkage to care under these new guidelines, we conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating linkage interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa under Treat All.

Recent Findings

We identified 14 eligible articles and qualitatively analyzed the effectiveness of the interventions. Increases in linkage were reported by supply-side and counseling interventions. Mobile testing and economic incentives did not increase linkage.


Given the lag time between adoption and implementation, only two of the studies were conducted in a Treat All setting. None of the interventions specifically focused on re-linking PLHIV who had disengaged from care. Future studies must design interventions that target not only newly diagnosed or treatment naïve PLHIV, but should explicitly focus on PLHIV who have disengaged from care.


HIV Linkage to care Intervention Treat all ART initiation Sub-Saharan Africa Treatment as prevention 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights

The article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

11904_2019_451_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 21 kb)


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicole Kelly
    • 1
    Email author
  • Werner Maokola
    • 1
    • 2
  • Omobola Mudasiru
    • 1
  • Sandra I. McCoy
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Community Development, Gender, Elderly, and ChildrenMinistry of HealthDar es SalaamTanzania

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