Current Heart Failure Reports

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 156–160 | Cite as

Optimizing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: an Update on New Insights and Advancements

  • Adam Grimaldi
  • Eiran Z. Gorodeski
  • John Rickard
Pharmacologic Therapy (W.H.W. Tang, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Pharmacologic Therapy


Purpose of Review

This review focuses on the current advancements in optimizing patient response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).

Recent Findings

It has been well known that not every patient will derive benefit from CRT, and of those that do, there are varying levels of response. Optimizing CRT begins well before device implant and involves appropriate patient selection and an understanding of the underlying substrate. After implant, there are different CRT device programming options that can be enabled to help overcome barriers as to why a patient may not respond.


Given the multifaceted components of optimizing CRT and the complex patient population, multi-subspecialty clinics have been developed bringing together specialists in heart failure, electrophysiology, and imaging. Data as to whether this results in better response rates and outcomes shows promise.


Heart failure Cardiac resynchronization therapy CRT optimization CRT optimization clinic Electrophysiology EP device management 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Adam Grimaldi and Eiran Z. Gorodeski declare no conflicts of interest. John Rickard reports personal fees from Medtronic and personal fees from Boston scientific, outside the submitted work.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adam Grimaldi
    • 1
  • Eiran Z. Gorodeski
    • 2
  • John Rickard
    • 3
  1. 1.Cardiology FellowshipCleveland Clinic Heart and Vascular InstituteClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Heart FailureCleveland Clinic Heart and Vascular InstituteClevelandUSA
  3. 3.ElectrophysiologyCleveland Clinic Heart and Vascular InstituteClevelandUSA

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