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Modifiable Environmental Factors in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

  • Kristin E. Burke
  • Christine Boumitri
  • Ashwin N. Ananthakrishnan
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (S Hanauer, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Environmental factors may influence predisposition to develop inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis) or alter its natural history by modification of both the host immune response and intestinal microbial composition. The purpose of this review is to translate such evidence into clinical practice by a focus on interventional studies that have modified such environmental influences to improve disease outcomes.

Recent Findings

Several environmental influences have been identified in the recent literature including tobacco use, diet, antibiotics, vitamin D deficiency, stress, appendectomy, and oral contraceptive use. Some risk factors have similar influences on both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis while others are disease-specific or have divergent effects.

Summary

Emerging epidemiologic evidence has confirmed the association of many of these factors with incident disease using prospective data. In addition, laboratory data has supported their mechanistic plausibility and relevance to intestinal inflammation.

Keywords

Crohn’s disease Ulcerative colitis Environment Diet Smoking 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Ashwin Ananthakrishnan reports serving on scientific advisory boards for Abbvie, Takeda, and Merck, outside the submitted work. Christine Boumitri and Kristin Burke declare no conflict of interest.

Grant Support

Ashwin Ananthakrishnan is supported by funding from the US National Institutes of Health (K23 DK097142) and the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristin E. Burke
    • 1
  • Christine Boumitri
    • 2
  • Ashwin N. Ananthakrishnan
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of GastroenterologyMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Division of GastroenterologyUniversity of Missouri-ColumbiaColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.Massachusetts General Hospital Crohn’s and Colitis CenterBostonUSA

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