Noordzij PG, Poldermans D, Schouten O, et al. Postoperative mortality in The Netherlands: a population-based analysis of surgery-specific risk in adults. Anaesthesiology. 2010;112:1105–15.
Whiting DR, Guariguata L, Weil C, et al. IDF diabetes atlas: global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2011 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;94(3):311–21.
Browne JA, Cook C, Pietrobon R, et al. Diabetes and early postoperative outcomes following lumbar fusion. Spine. 2007;32(20):2214–9.
Wukich DK, Joseph A, Ryan M, Ramirez C, Irrgang JJ. Outcomes of ankle fractures in patients with uncomplicated versus complicated diabetes. Foot Ankle Int. 2011;32(2):120–30.
Kerby JD, Griffin RL, MacLennan P, Rue III LW. Stress-induced hyperglycemia, not diabetic hyperglycemia, is associated with higher mortality in trauma. Ann Surg. 2012;256(3):446–52.
Karunakar, Madhav A, Staples, Kurtis S. Does stress-induced hyperglycemia increase the risk of peri-operative infectious complications in orthopedic trauma patients? J Orthop Trauma. 2010;24(12):752–6.
Lauruschkat AH, Arnrich B, Albert AA, et al. Prevalence and risks of undiagnosed diabetes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Circulation. 2005;112:2397–402.
Dortch JD, Eck DL, Ladlie B, et al. Peri-operative glycemic control in plastic surgery: review and discussion of an institutional protocol. Br J Anaesth. 2000;85(1):109–17.
Turina M, SFry DE, Polk Jr HC. Acute hyperglycemia and the innate immune system: clinical, cellular and molecular aspects. Crit Care Med. 2005;33(7):1624–33.
Kirkland KB, Briggs JP, Trivette SL, et al. The impact of surgical-site infections in the 1990s: attributable mortality, excess length of hospitalization, and extra costs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1999;20:725–30.
Bolognesi MP, Marchant Jr MH, Viens NA, Cook C, Pietrobon R, Vail TP. The impact of diabetes on peri-operative patient outcomes after total hip and total knee arthroplasty in the United States. J Arthroplasty. 2008;23:92–8.
Hikata T, Iwanami A, Hosogane N, et al. High preoperative hemoglobin A1c is a risk factor for surgical site infection after posterior thoracic and lumbar spinal instrumentation surgery. J Orthop Sci. 2014;19(2):223–8.
Richards JE, Kauffmann RM, Zuckerman SL, et al. Relationship of hyperglycemia and surgical-site infection in orthopedic surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Ser A. 2012;94(13):1181–6.
Kurtz SM, Lau E, Schmier J, et al. Infection burden for hip and knee arthroplasty in the United States. J Arthroplasty. 2008;23(7):984–91.
• Chrastil J, Anderson MB, Stevens V, et al. Is hemoglobin A1c or peri-operative hyperglycemia predictive of periprosthetic joint infection or death following primary total joint arthroplasty? J Arthroplasty. 2015;7(30):1197–202. A large retrospective study examining the relationship between hyperglycemia, HbA1C and periprosthetic infection following primary arthroplasty.
Maradit Kremers H, Lewallen LW, Mabry TM. Diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, hemoglobin A1C and the risk of prosthetic joint infections in total hip and knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2015;30(3):439–43.
Mraovic B, Suh D, Jacovides C, Parvizi J, et al. Peri-operative hyperglycemia and postoperative infection after lower limb arthroplasty. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2011;5(2):412–8.
Jämson E, Nevalainen P, Kalliovalkama J, et al. Preoperative hyperglycemia predicts infected total knee replacement. EUR. 2010;21:196–201.
Mraovic B, Hipszer BR, Epstein RH, et al. Preadmission hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for in-hospital symptomatic pulmonary embolism after major orthopedic surgery. J Arthroplasty. 2010;25:64–70.
Machino M, Yukawa Y, Ito K, et al. Risk factors for poor outcome of cervical laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy in patients with diabetes. J Bone Joint Surg. 2014;96(24):2049–55.
•• Agos F, Shoda C, Bransford D, et al. Part II: managing peri-operative hyperglycemia in total hip and knee replacement surgeries. Nurs Clin North Am. 2014;49(3):299–308. This study demonstrates the clinical benefits of implementing an evidence based pathway for managing peri-operative hyperglycemia.
Trussell J, Gerkin R, Coates B, et al. Impact of a patient care pathway protocol on surgical site infection rates in cardiothoracic surgery patients. Am J Surg. 196(6):883–9.
Furnary AP, Zerr KJ, Grunkemeier GL, Starr A. Continuous intravenous insulin infusion reduces the incidence of deep sternal wound infection in diabetic patients after cardiac surgical procedures. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;67:352–60. discussion 60–2.
Umpierrez GE, Smiley D, Jacobs S, et al. Randomized study of basal-bolus insulin therapy in the inpatient management of patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing general surgery (RABBIT 2 surgery). Diabetes Care. 2011;34:256–61.
Moghissi ES, Korytkowski MT, DiNardo M, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Diabetes Association consensus statement on inpatient glycemic control. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1119.
Dhatariya K, Levy N, Kilvert A, et al. NHS Diabetes guideline for the peri-operative management of the adult patient with diabetes. Diabetes Med. 2012;29:420–3.
Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee. Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada. Can J Diabetes. 2013;37 Suppl 1:S1–212.
Schipper N, Jiang JJ, Chen L, et al. Effect of diabetes mellitus on peri-operative complications and hospital outcomes after ankle arthrodesis and total ankle arthroplasty. Foot Ankle Int. 2015;36(3):258–67.
Toor AS, Jiang JJ, Shi LL, Koh JL, et al. Comparison of peri-operative complications after total elbow arthroplasty in patients with and without diabetes. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2014;23(11):1599–606.
Martin ET, Kaye KS, Knott C, et al. Diabetes and risk of surgical site infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2016;37(1):88–9.
Lovecchio F, Beal M, Kwasny M, et al. Do patients with insulin-dependent and noninsulin-dependent diabetes have different risks for complications after arthroplasty? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014;472(11):3570–5.
Besse JL, Leremrijse T, Deleu P. Diabetic foot: the orthopedic surgery angle; dics and struamatology. Surg Res. 2011;97(3):314–29.
Kannel WB, McGee DL. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The Framingham study. JAMA. 1979;241(19):2035–8.
Stamler J, Vaccaro O, Neaton JD, et al. Diabetes, other risk factors, and 12-year cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. Diabetes Care. 1993;16:434–44.
Goldman L, Caldera D, Fredrick MD. Cardiac risk factors and complications in non-cardiac surgery. Medicine. 1978;57(4)357–70.
Egi M, Bellomo R, Stachowski E, et al. Variability of blood glucose concentration and short-term mortality in critically ill patients. Anesthesiology. 2006;105:244–52.
Hatzakorzian R, Bui H, Carvalho G, et al. Fasting blood glucose levels in patients presenting for elective surgery. Nutrition. 2011;27(3):298–301.
Frisch A, Chandra P, Smiley D, et al. Prevalence and clinical outcome of hyperglycemia in the peri-operative period in noncardiac surgery. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:1783–8.
Type 2 diabetes: prevention in people at high risk | 2-public-health-need-and-practice | Guidance and guidelines | NICE https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ph38/chapter/2-public-health-need-and-practice. Accessed 21st August 2015.
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2013. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(S1):S11–66.
•• Bock M, Johansson T, Fritsch G, et al. The impact of preoperative testing for blood glucose concentration and haemoglobin A1c on mortality, changes in management and complications in noncardiac elective surgery: a systematic review. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2015;32:152–9. This systematic review evaluates the association between glucose and HbA1C testing preoperatively and important outcomes across a range of surgical specialities.
World Health Organization. Use of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. 2011. WHO/NMH/CHP/CPM/11.1 http://www.who.int/diabetes/publications/diagnosis_diabetes2011/en/.
Giori N, Ellerbe LS, Bowe T. Many diabetic total joint arthroplasty candidates are unable to achieve a preoperative hemoglobin A1c goal of 7% or less. J Bone Joint Surg. 2014;96(6):500–4.
Rayman G, Vas PR, Baker N. The Ipswich Touch Test: a simple and novel method to identify in patients with diabetes at risk of foot ulceration. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(7):1517–8.
Finfer S, Chittock DR, Su SY-S, NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators, et al. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:1283–97.
Ljungqvist O, Soop M, Hedström M. Why metabolism matters in elective orthopedic surgery: a review. Acta Orthop. 2007;78:610–5.
Ljungqvist O, Nygren J, Thorell A, Brodin U, Efendic S. Preoperative nutrition– elective surgery in the fed or the overnight fasted state. Clin Nutr. 2001;20 Suppl 1:167–71.
Varadhan KK, Neal KR, Dejong CH, Fearon KC, et al. The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathway for patients undergoing major elective open colorectal surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Nutr. 2010;29(4):434–40.
Smith MD, McCall J, Plank L, et al, Preoperative carbohydrate treatment for enhancing recovery after elective surgery. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD009161.
Gustaffson UO, Nygren J, Thorell A, et al. Pre-operative carbohydrate loading may be used in type 2 diabetes patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2008;52:946–51.
Gustafsson UO et al. Guidelines for peri-operative care in elective colonic surgery: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) Society recommendations. World J Surg. 2013;37(2):259–84.
Lumbley JL, Sa A, Tchokouani LS. Retrospective review of predisposing factors for intra-operative pressure ulcer development. J Clin Anesth. 2014;26(5):368–74.
Versluysen M. Pressure sores in elderly patients. The epidemiology related to hip operations. J Bone Joint Surg Ser B. 1985;67(1):10–3.
Doenst T, Wijeysundera D, Karkouti K, et al. Hyperglycemia during cardiopulmonary bypass is an independent risk factor for morality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;130:1144.
Ouattara A et al. Poor intra-operative blood glucose control is associated with a worsened hospital outcome after cardiac surgery in diabetic patients. J Am Soc Anesthesiol. 2005;103(4):687–94.
Membership of the Working Party, Barker P, Creasey PE, Dhatariya K, et al. Perioperative management of the surgical patient with diabetes. Anaesthesia. 2015;70:1427–40.
Neves C, Paula Barbosa A, Carvalho D, et al. Administration of combined solutions of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) versus glucose and insulin in separate solutions (GISS) in diabetic patients submitted to cardiac surgery [Portuguese] Administracao de glicose-insulina-potassio (GIK) em solucoes combinadas versus glicose e insulina em sistemas separados (GISS), em doentes diabeticos submetidos a cirurgia cardiac. Arq Med. 1999;13(1):4–8.
Postoperative glycemia in patients with diabetes maintained on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion during same day surgery admission. Comparative Effectiveness/Health Outcomes/Quality Improvement/Patient or Provider Education/Endocrine Emergencies. Endocrine Society, 2013. SUN–284.
Boyle ME, Seifert KM, Beer KA, et al. Guidelines for application of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pump) therapy in the peri-operative period. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2012;6(1):184–90.
Remaley DT, Jaeblon T. Pressure ulcers in orthopedics. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2010;18(9):568–75.
Marculescu CE, Osmon DR. Antibiotic prophylaxis in orthopedic prosthetic surgery. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2005;19(4):931–46.
Prokuski L. Prophylactic antibiotics in orthopedic surgery. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008;16:283–93.
Dowsey MM, Choong PF. Obese diabetic patients are at substantial risk for deep infection after primary TKA. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009;467(6):1577–81.
Dowsey MM, Choong PF. Obesity is a major risk factor for prosthetic infection after primary hip arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466(1):153–8.
Bratzler DW, Houck PM, Surgical infection prevention guidelines writers workgroup; American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery: an advisory statement from the National Surgical Infection Prevention Project. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:1706–15.
Umpierrez GE, Gianchandani R, Smiley D, et al. Safety and efficacy of sitagliptin therapy for the inpatient management of general medicine and surgery patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(11):3430–5.
Lee Y-Y et al. Sliding-scale insulin used for blood glucose control: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Metabolism. 2015;64(9):935–1192.
Flanagan D, Moore E, Baker S, et al. Diabetes care in hospital; the impact of a dedicated inpatient care team. Diabetes Med. 2008;25(2):147–51.
Lazarevic MB, Skosey JL, Djordjevic-Denic G, Swedler WI, Zgradic I, Myones BL. Reduction of cortisol levels after single intra-articular and intramuscular steroid injection. Am J Med. 1995;99(4):370–3.
Caudwell JR. Intra-articular corticosteroids. Guide for selection and indications for use. Drugs. 1996;52(4):507–14.
Schairer WW, Nwachukwu BU, Mayman DJ, et al. Preoperative hip injections increase the rate of periprosthetic infection after total hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2016;31(9 Suppl):166–9.e1.
Habib GS. Systemic effects of intra-articular corticosteroids. Clin Rheumatol. 2009;28(7):749–56.
Habib GS, Ramez A-A. Lack of effect of corticosteroid injection at the shoulder joint on blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26(4):566–8.
Habib G, Safia A. The effect of intra-articular injection of betamethasone acetate/betamethasone sodium phosphate on blood glucose levels in controlled diabetic patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee. Clin Rheumatol. 2009;28(1):85–7.
Roberts A, James J, Dhatariya K, et al. Management of hyperglyemia and steroid (glucocorticoid) therapy. JBDS-IP October 2014. Available at http://www.diabetologists-abcd.org.uk/JBDS/JBDS_IP_Steroids.pdf. Accessed 18 Sept 2015.