Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 110–114 | Cite as

Primary and Secondary Tethered Cord and Association with Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

  • Cagri Akin Sekerci
  • Tufan TarcanEmail author
Pediatric Bladder Dysfunction (J Thomas and D Clayton, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Pediatric Bladder Dysfunction


Purpose of Review

Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) due to adhesion defect of the spinal cord is one of the major causes of lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) in children. The aim of this article is to evaluate the association, diagnosis, and treatment of TCS with LUT disorders in children.

Recent Findings

TCS is divided into two groups as primary and secondary depending on whether it is congenital or acquired. TCS can manifest with gait disturbance, pain, orthopedic deformities, and LUT symptoms. LUT symptoms may be the only symptom in some cases. TCS may cause neurogenic LUTD characterized by detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, urinary incontinence, and upper urinary tract damage in children.


Primary urologic goal of surgical repair of TCS is prevention of upper urinary tract deterioration and improving LUT symptoms. Urodynamic studies revealing functional deterioration of the LUT are objective tests for surgical indication. Treatment should be planned by a multidisciplinary approach.


Primary tethered cord syndrome Secondary tethered cord syndrome Neurogenic LUTD Urodynamic studies Multidisciplinary approach 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Unfortunately, there are few studies on the effect of tethered cord on lower urinary tract functions in children in recent years. These studies are important in terms of showing the relationship between urodynamic findings and tethered cord syndrome.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urology, Division of Pediatric UrologyMarmara University, School of MedicineIstanbulTurkey

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