Source apportionment studies are expected to provide relative contribution of different sources responsible for deteriorated air quality in an urban area, so that the agency responsible for urban air quality management can adopt prioritized source-specific control measures. Robust assessment of source contributions in a typical urban land-use pattern is the prime step for development of effective emission control strategies. This necessitates a critical review of the PM2.5 source apportionment studies conducted in different urban land uses and delineation of the dominant sources along with its contribution to reveal the diversifications among the peculiar land use classifications even within the same city. The present study reviewed the source apportionment studies carried out at 37 locations from seven Indian cities and categorized the sources contribution on seasonal (winters and summers) average basis for residential, commercial, industrial, kerbside, and mixed locations. The findings of the review studies inferred considerable variations in the source’s contribution to air pollution with land use change. For example, during winter, domestic/biomass emission was reported as a significant source in residential (34%), commercial (26%), mixed (46%), industrial (31%), and road side (27%) locations in Delhi city in North India. However, vehicle (57%) was found to be the dominant source in residential area whose contribution increased up to 76% at road side location in Bangalore City in South India. It is also observed that source contributions vary in different seasons depending upon the activity levels. More or less similar observation was found in other cities selected for this study. The variations in source apportionment findings for a particular city might be attributed to heterogeneity of sources/major activity areas, nonuniform adoption of methodology. The study emphasizes on the need for the development of urban air quality management plan based on the land use specific source apportionment studies.
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Accelerator mass spectrometry
Atomic absorption spectroscopy
Beta attenuation monitor
Chemical mass balance
Constrained physical receptor model
Desert Research Institute
Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence
Filter dynamics measurement system
Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry
Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry
Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
Multi linear regression
Principal component analysis
Proton induced X-ray emission
Positive matrix factorization
Tapered element oscillating microbalance
Versatile air pollutant sampler
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Goyal, P., Gulia, S. & Goyal, S.K. Review of land use specific source contributions in PM2.5 concentration in urban areas in India. Air Qual Atmos Health (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-020-00972-x
- Land use
- Source apportionment
- Local air pollution