Advertisement

Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 581–590 | Cite as

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon patterns in the city of Rio de Janeiro

  • Rafael Lopes Oliveira
  • Danilo Jorge Custódio
  • Claudia Ramos de Rainho
  • Erika Morais
  • Israel Felzenszwalb
  • Sérgio Machado Corrêa
  • Débora Almeida Azevedo
  • Graciela Arbilla
Article
  • 89 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, the concentrations of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), considered priority by US EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency), in fine particulate matter (PM2.5), were determined in a forest reserve and in an urban area in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The PM2.5 samples were collected in the Tijuca Forest (TF) and on the Maracanã campus of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), using PM2.5 high-volume air samplers, from November 2015 to April 2016. The organic matter was extracted, separated by liquid chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The mean total PAH (excluding naphthalene, acenaphthene, and acenaphthylene) concentrations were 0.46 ± 0.61 ng m−3 and 1.12 ± 0.71 ng m−3 in PM2.5 collected at TF and UERJ, respectively. The diagnostic ratios suggested vehicular sources for both sites with no clear distinction between light and heavy vehicular sources. Cluster and principal component analyses were also used to clarify the possible PAH sources. Simulations of air mass trajectories confirmed the transport of pollutants from the city to the forest. Mutagenicity tests revealed that the PM collected in the UERJ presented mutagenic positive activity, likely for nitro-PAH and amino-PAH, which may be related to vehicular emissions. For the TF, although the forest was impacted by the pollutants, no positive activity was detected. Correlation and cluster analyses showed different PAH distributions for the TF and UERJ sites, which indicates that the TF receives the air masses from the city but is also impacted by local emissions.

Keywords

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Elementary and organic carbon Air quality Mutagenicity assay 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Tijuca National Park (ICMBio) for the support in the collection of the samples.

Funding information

They also acknowledge Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), Coordination of Improvement of Higher Level Personnel (CAPES), Carlos Chagas Filho Foundation for Research Support of the State of Rio de Janeiro and (FAPERJ) Leopoldo Américo Miguez de Mello Research Center (CENPES) for financial support.

Supplementary material

11869_2018_566_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.3 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1356 kb)

References

  1. Abdel-Shafy HI, Mansour MSM (2016) A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation. Egypt J Pet 25:107–123.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2015.03.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agudelo-Castañeda DM, Teixeira EC (2014) Seasonal changes, identification and source apportionment of PAH in PM1.0. Atmos Environ 96:186–200.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.07.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen AG, da Rocha GO, Cardoso AA, Partelini WC, Machado CMD, de Andrade JB (2008) Atmospheric particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from road transport in Southeast Brazil. Transp Res Part D: Transp Environ 13:483–490.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2008.09.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Azevedo DA, Moreira LS, Siqueira DS (1999) Composition of extractable organic matter in aerosols from urban areas of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. Atmos Environ 33:4987–5001.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00270-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauer H, Kasper-Giebl A, Löflund M, Giebl H, Hitzenberger R, Zibuschka F, Puxbaum H (2002) The contribution of bacteria and fungal spores to the organic carbon content of cloud water, precipitation and aerosols. Atmos Res 64:109–119.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-8095(02)00084-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bela MM, Longo KM, Freitas SR, Moreira DS, Beck V, Wofsy SC, Gerbig C, Wiedemann K, Andreae MO, Artaxo P (2015) Ozone production and transport over the Amazon Basin during the dry to wet and wet-to-dry transition seasons. Atmos Chem Phys 15:757–782.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-757-2015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bootdee S, Chantara S, Prapamontol T (2016) Determination of PM2.5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incense burning emission at shrine for health risk assessment. Atmos Poll Res 7:680–689.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2016.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bressi M, Sciare J, Ghersi V, Bonnaire N (2013) A one-year comprehensive chemical characterization of fine aerosol (PM2.5) at urban, suburban and a rural background sites in the region of Paris (France). Atmos Chem Phys 13:7825–7844.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-7825-2013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Callen MS, Iturmendi A, Lopez JM (2014) Source apportionment of atmospheric PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a PMF receptor model. Assessment of potential risk for human health. Environ Poll 195:167–177.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.08.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Castro LM, Pio CA, Harrison RM, Smith DJT (1999) Carbonaceous aerosol in urban and rural European atmospheres: estimation of secondary organic carbon concentrations. Atmos Environ 33:2771–2781.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00331-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caumo S, Vicente A, Custódio D, Alves C, Vasconcelos P (2017) Organic compounds in particulate and gaseous phase collected in the neighbourhood of an industrial complex in São Paulo (Brazil). Air Qual Atmos Health. https://doi-org.ez106.periodicos.capes.gov.br/10.1007/s11869-017-0531-7, Organic compounds in particulate and gaseous phase collected in the neighbourhood of an industrial complex in São Paulo (Brazil)
  12. Cavalcante RM, Rocha CA, de Santiago IS, da Silva TFA, Cattony CM, Silva MVC, Silva IB, Thiers PRL (2017) Influence of urbanization on air quality based on the occurrence of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a tropical semiarid area (Fortaleza-CE, Brazil). Air Qual Atmos Health 10:437–445.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-016-0434-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen C, Xia Z, Wu M, Zhang Q, Wang T, Wang L, Yang H (2017) Concentrations, sources identification, and lung cancer risk associated with springtime PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Nanjing, China. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 73:391–400.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-017-0435-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Choi J-K, Heo J-B, Ban S-J, Yi S-M, Zoh K-D (2012) Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 aerosol in Incheon, Korea. Atmos Environ 60:583–592.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.06.078 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Corrêa SM, Arbilla G, Martins ES, Quitério SL, Guimarães CS, Gatti LV (2010) Five-years of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde monitoring in the Rio de Janeiro downtown area - Brazil. Atmos Environ 44:2302–2308.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.03.043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Custódio D, Guimarães CS, Varandas L, Arbilla G (2010) Pattern of volatile aldehydes and aromatic hydrocarbons in the largest urban rainforest in the Americas. Chemosphere 79:1064–1069.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.03.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. da Rocha GO, Lopes WA, Pereira PAP, Vasconcellos PC, Oliveira FS, Carvalho LS, Conceicão LS, de Andrade JB (2009) Quantification and source identification of atmospheric particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their dry deposition fluxes at three sites in Salvador Basin, Brazil, impacted by mobile and stationary sources. J Braz Chem Soc 20:680–692.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532009000400012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de Oliveira Alves N, Brito J, Caumo S, Arana A, Hacon SS, Artaxo P, Hillamo R, Teinilä K, de Medeiros SRB, Vasconcelos PC (2015) Biomass burning in the Amazon region: aerosol source apportionment and associated health risk assessment. Atmos Environ 120:277–285.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.08.059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Escovedo FJ, Nowak DJ (2009) Spatial heterogeneity and air pollution removal by an urban forest. Landsc Urban Plan 90:102–110.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2008.10.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Franco CFJ, de Resende MF, de Almeida Furtado L, Brasil TF, Eberlin MN, Netto ADP (2017) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust of Rio de Janeiro and Niterói, Brazil: particle size distribution, sources and cancer risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 599-600:305–313.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fu S, Zhong-Chi Y, Li K, Xiao-Bai X (2010) Spatial characteristics and major sources and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil and respirable particulate matter in a mega-city, China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 85:15–21.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-0026-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. He L, Chen H, Rangognio J, Yahyaoui A, Colin P, Wang J, Daele V, Mellouki A (2018) Fine particles at a background site in Central France: chemical compositions, seasonal variations and pollution event. Sci Total Environ 612:1159–1170.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.273 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huang B, Liu M, Ren Z, Bi X, Zhang G, Sheng G, Fu J (2013) Chemical composition, diurnal variation and sources of PM2.5 at two industrial sites of South China. Atmos Poll Res 4:298–305.  https://doi.org/10.5094/APR.2013.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. IARC – International Agency for Research on Cancer (2010) Some non-heterocyclic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and some related exposure. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol92/mono92.pdf Accessed 09 March 2018
  25. Khan MF, Latif MT, Lim CH, Amil N, Jaafar SA, Dominick D, Nadzir MSM, Sahani M, Tahir NM (2015) Seasonal effect and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5. Atmos Environ 106:178–190.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.01.077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kourtchev I, Warmke J, Maenhaut W, Hoffman T, Claeys M (2008) Polar organic marker compounds in PM2.5 aerosol from a mixed forest site in western Germany. Chemosphere 73:1308–1314.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.07.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee JY, Shin HJ, Bae SY, Kim YP, Kang C-H (2008) Seasonal variation of particle size distributions of PAHs at Seoul, Korea. Air Qual Atmos Health 1:57–68.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-008-0002-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liu D, Xu Y, Chaemfa C, Tian CG, Li J, Luo CL, Zhang G (2014) Concentrations, seasonal variations, and outflow of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at Ningbo site, eastern China. Atmos Poll Res 5:203–209.  https://doi.org/10.5094/APR.2014.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Martellini T, Giannoni M, Lepri L, Katsoyiannis A (2012) One-year intensive PM2.5 bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons monitoring in the area of Tuscany, Italy. Concentrations, source understanding and implications. Environ Poll 164:252–258.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.12.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mohanraj R, Solaraj G, Dhanakumar S (2011) PM2.5 and PAH concentration in urban atmosphere of Tiruchirappalli. India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 87:330–335.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0349-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Niu Z, Zhang F, Chen J, Yin L, Wang S, Xu L (2013) Carbonaceous species in PM2.5 in the coastal urban agglomeration in the western Taiwan Strait region, China. Atmos Res 122:102–110.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Oliveira RL, Loyola J, Minho AS, Quiterio SL, Azevedo DA, Arbilla G (2014a) PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil impacted by emissions of light-duty vehicles fueled by ethanol-blended gasoline. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 93:781–786.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-014-1409-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Oliveira RL, Varandas L, Arbilla G (2014b) Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in the vicinity of a petrochemical complex located in a densely populated area of the Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Atmos Pollut Res 5:87–95.  https://doi.org/10.5094/APR.2014.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Orecchio S (2010) Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil of a natural reserve (Isola delle Femmine) (Italy) located in front of a plant for the production of cement. J Hazard Mater 173:358–368.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.08.088 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Park SS, Kim YJ, Kang CH (2012) Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Seoul, Korea. Atmos Environ 36:2917–2924.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00206-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pongpiachan S, Tipmanee D, Khumsup C, Kittikoon I, Hirunyatrakul P (2015) Assessing risks to adults and preschool children posed by PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during a biomass burning episode in northern Thailand. Sci Total Environ 508:435–444.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.12.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pratt GC, Herbrandson C, Krause MJ, Schmitt C, Lippert CJ, McMahon CR (2018) Measurements of gas and particle polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air at urban, rural and near-roadway sites. Atmos Environ 179:268–278.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.02.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. R CORE TEAM (2016) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL https://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 09 March 2018
  39. Rainho CR, Corrêa SM, Mazzei JL, Aiub CAF, Felzenszwalb I (2013) Genotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitro-derived in Respirable airborne particulate matter collected from urban areas of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Biomed Res Int 2013:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/765352 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ravindra K, Sokhi R, Grieken RV (2008) Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: source attribution, emission factors and regulation. Atmos Environ 42:2895–2921.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.12.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rogula-Kozlowska W, Kozielska B, Klejnowski K (2013) Concentration, origin and health hazard from fine particle-bound PAH at three characteristic sites in southern Poland. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 91:349–355.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-013-1060-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. SARJ – Sistema Alerta Rio of Rio de Janeiro city available in http://alertario.rio.rj.gov.br/. Accessed 01 October 2015
  43. Slezakova K, Castro D, Begonha A, Delerue-Matos C, Aalvim-Ferraz MDC, Morais S, Pereira MDC (2011) Air pollution from traffic emissions in Oporto, Portugal: earth and environmental implications. Microchem J 99:51–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2011.03.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sofowote UM, Allan LM, McCarry BE (2010) Evaluation of PAH diagnostic ratios as source apportionment tools for air particulates collected in an urban-industrial environment. J Environ Monit 12:417–424.  https://doi.org/10.1039/b909660d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tavares Jr M, Pinto JP, Souza AL, Scarminio IS, Solci MC (2004) Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from diesel engine in a bus station, Londrina, Brazil. Atmos Environ 38:5039–5044.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.06.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tobiszewski M, Namiesnik J (2012) PAH diagnostic ratios for the identification of pollution emission sources. Environ Poll 162:110–119.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.10.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Umbuzeiro GDA, Franco A, Magalhães D (2008) A preliminary characterization of the mutagenicity of atmospheric particulate matter collected during sugar cane harvesting using the salmonella/microsome microsuspension assay. Environ Mol Mutagen 49:249–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. USEPA - Environmental Protection Agency (1996) Method 3550B: Ultrasonic extraction. Revision 2. http://www.trincoll.edu/~henderso/textfi~1/416%20note s/3550b.pdf. Accessed 01 March 2017
  49. USEPA - Environmental Protection Agency (2014) Method 8270D: Semivolatile Organic Compounds by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-07/documents/epa-8270d.pdf. Accessed 03 March 2017
  50. Vargas VME, Horn RC, Guidobono RR, Mittelstaedt AB, Azevedo IG (1998) Mutagenic activity of airbone particulate matter from the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Genet Mol Biol 21:247–253.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47571998000200013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wiriya W, Prapamontol T, Chantara S (2013) PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Chiang Mai (Thailand): seasonal variations, source identification, health risk assessment and their relationship to air-mass movement. Atmos Res 124:109–122.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.12.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zhang F, Xu L, Chen J, Yu Y, Niu Z, Yin L (2012) Chemical compositions and extinction coefficients of PM2.5 in peri-urban of Xiamen, China, during June 2009–may 2010. Atmos Res 106:150–158.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhang F, Wang Z-w, Cheng H-r, Lv X-P, Gong W, Wang X-m, Zhang G (2015) Seasonal variations and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 in Wuhan, Central China. Sci Total Environ 518-519:97–105.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.02.054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafael Lopes Oliveira
    • 1
    • 2
  • Danilo Jorge Custódio
    • 3
    • 4
  • Claudia Ramos de Rainho
    • 5
  • Erika Morais
    • 5
  • Israel Felzenszwalb
    • 5
  • Sérgio Machado Corrêa
    • 6
  • Débora Almeida Azevedo
    • 1
  • Graciela Arbilla
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de QuímicaUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto Nacional de TecnologiaRio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Instituto de QuímicaUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), Institute of Coastal ResearchGeesthachtGermany
  5. 5.Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara GomesUniversidade do Estado do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  6. 6.Faculdade de TecnologiaUniversidade do Estado do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations