Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 535–548 | Cite as

Stratospheric ozone intrusions during the passage of cold fronts over central Chile

  • Rodrigo J. Seguel
  • Carlos A. Mancilla
  • Manuel A. Leiva G.


This study analyzes tropospheric column ozone variability in the southern hemisphere as a function of ozone transport from the stratosphere to the troposphere and photochemical formation. Geographically, the study area was located in the mid-latitudes in South America (33° S), to the west of the Andes mountain range, in an area highly susceptible to stratospheric intrusions. Monthly ozonesonde measurements were recorded in Colina to ascertain seasonal vertical ozone distribution from the surface to the stratosphere between September 2010 and May 2012. Vertical distribution of the tropospheric ozone was measured in Talagante for fronts crossing from west to east in central Chile, during two periods in September 2014 and March 2015. These periods were significantly different in terms of the stratospheric ozone annual cycle and height of the tropopause. Our results showed rapid increases of approximately 50% in the tropospheric column ozone at time intervals shorter than 1 week. At the surface level, unusually enhanced ozone levels up to 10 parts per billion volume (ppbv) were observed during nighttime. Additionally, stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) preferentially occurred in spring and winter, with higher contribution during spring when the tropospheric column ozone attained its maximum concentration. These results provide valuable information regarding tropospheric ozone, a major local and global climate pollutant, to decision makers. In addition, they provide the research community with experimental data from the southern hemisphere, which helps bridge knowledge gaps in a region that has been rarely studied by national and international scientific communities.


Ozonesonde Ozone intrusion Tropospheric column ozone Stratosphere-troposphere exchange 



This work has been funded by the FONDECYT Program, initiation into research 2013, Project No. 11130177.

Supplementary material

11869_2018_558_Fig12_ESM.gif (143 kb)
Fig. S1

Evolution of the ozone standard compliance for Las Condes monitoring station at Santiago, Chile. (GIF 142 kb)

11869_2018_558_MOESM1_ESM.tif (1.4 mb)
High resolution image (TIFF 1453 kb)
11869_2018_558_Fig13_ESM.gif (112 kb)
Fig. S2

Ozonesonde for October 18, 2011 in Colina, Chile. (GIF 111 kb)

11869_2018_558_MOESM2_ESM.tif (997 kb)
High resolution image (TIFF 997 kb)


  1. Alvim DS et al (2017) Main ozone-forming VOCs in the city of Sao Paulo: observations, modelling and impacts. Air Qual Atmos Health 10:421–435. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anet JG, Steinbacher M, Gallardo L, Velásquez Álvarez PA, Emmenegger L, Buchmann B (2017) Surface ozone in the southern hemisphere: 20 years of data from a site with a unique setting in El Tololo, Chile. Atmos Chem Phys 17:6477–6492. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrett BS, Campos DA, Veloso JV, Rondanelli R (2016) Extreme temperature and precipitation events in March 2015 in central and northern Chile. J Geophys Res: Atmos 121:4563–4580. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell ML, McDermott A, Zeger SL, Samet JM, Dominici F (2004) Ozone and short-term mortality in 95 US urban communities, 1987-2000. JAMA 292:2372–2378. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cooper O et al (2004) On the life cycle of a stratospheric intrusion and its dispersion into polluted warm conveyor belts. J Geophys Res: Atmos 109.
  6. Danielsen EF (1968) Stratospheric-tropospheric exchange based on radioactivity, ozone and potential vorticity. J Atmos Sci 25:502–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fiore AM, Naik V, Leibensperger EM (2015) Air quality and climate connections. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 65:645–685. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gallardo L, Henríquez A, Thompson AM, Rondanelli R, Carrasco J, Orfanoz-Cheuquelaf A, Velásquez P (2016) The first twenty years (1994–2014) of ozone soundings from Rapa Nui (27°S, 109°W, 51 m a.s.l.) Tellus B Chem Phys Meteorol 68:29484. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hegglin MI, Shepherd TG (2009) Large climate-induced changes in ultraviolet index and stratosphere-to-troposphere ozone flux. Nat Geosci 2:687–691 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kalnay E et al (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 77:437–471.<0437:tnyrp>;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Komhyr WD (1969) Electrochemical cells for gas analysis. Ann Geophys 25:203–210Google Scholar
  12. Lee DS, Holland MR, Falla N (1996) The potential impact of ozone on materials in the U.K. Atmos Environ 30:1053–1065. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lippmann M (1991) Health effects of tropospheric ozone. Environ Sci Technol 25:1954–1962. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Liu JC, Peng RD (2018) Health effect of mixtures of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and fine particulates in 85 US counties. Air Qual Atmos Health.
  15. McConnell R et al (2002) Asthma in exercising children exposed to ozone: a cohort study. Lancet 359:386–391. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McPeters RD, Labow GJ, Johnson BJ (1997) A satellite-derived ozone climatology for balloonsonde estimation of total column ozone. J Geophys Res: Atmos 102:8875–8885. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Monks PS (2000) A review of the observations and origins of the spring ozone maximum. Atmos Environ 34:3545–3561. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Monks PS et al (2015) Tropospheric ozone and its precursors from the urban to the global scale from air quality to short-lived climate forcer. Atmos Chem Phys 15:8889–8973. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. National Research Council, Committee on C, Physics of Ozone D (1982) Causes and effects of stratospheric ozone reduction, an update: a report / prepared by the Committee on Chemistry and Physics of Ozone Depletion and the Committee on Biological Effects of Increased Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, Environmental Studies Board, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council. vol Accessed from National Academy Press, Washington, D.C
  20. Neuman JA et al (2012) Observations of ozone transport from the free troposphere to the Los Angeles basin. J Geophys Res: Atmos 117.
  21. Nielsen-Gammon JW et al (2008) Multisensor estimation of mixing heights over a coastal city. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 47:27–43. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Penkett SA, Brice KA (1986) The spring maximum in photo-oxidants in the northern hemisphere troposphere. Nature 319:655–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Price JD, Vaughan G (1993) The potential for stratosphere-troposphere exchange in cut-off-low systems. Q J R Meteorol Soc 119:343–365. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Randel WJ, Seidel DJ, Pan LL (2007) Observational characteristics of double tropopauses. J Geophys Res: Atmos 112.
  25. Roelofs G-J, Lelieveld JOS (1997) Model study of the influence of cross-tropopause O3 transports on tropospheric O3 levels. Tellus B 49:38–55. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rondanelli R, Gallardo L, Garreaud RD (2002) Rapid changes in ozone mixing ratios at Cerro Tololo (30°10′S, 70°48′W, 2200 m) in connection with cutoff lows and deep troughs. J Geophys Res: Atmos 107:4677. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schoeberl MR (2004) Extratropical stratosphere-troposphere mass exchange. J Geophys Res: Atmos 109.
  28. Schultz MG et al (2017) Tropospheric ozone assessment report: database and metrics data of global surface ozone observations. Elem Sci Anth 5:58. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Seguel RJ, Morales SR, Leiva GM (2012) Ozone weekend effect in Santiago, Chile. Environ Pollut 162:72–79. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Seguel RJ, Mancilla CA, Rondanelli R, Leiva MA, Morales RGE (2013) Ozone distribution in the lower troposphere over complex terrain in Central Chile. J Geophys Res: Atmos 118:2966–2980. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Staehelin J, Mäder J, Weiss AK, Appenzeller C (2002) Long-term ozone trends in northern mid-latitudes with special emphasis on the contribution of changes in dynamics. Phys Chem Earth A/B/C 27:461–469. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stevenson DS et al (2006) Multimodel ensemble simulations of present-day and near-future tropospheric ozone. J Geophys Res: Atmos 111.
  33. Stohl A et al (2000) The influence of stratospheric intrusions on alpine ozone concentrations. Atmos Environ 34:1323–1354. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Thompson AM et al (2012) Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) ozone climatology (2005–2009): Tropospheric and tropical tropopause layer (TTL) profiles with comparisons to OMI-based ozone products. J Geophys Res: Atmos 117.
  35. Toro R, Donoso C, Seguel RJ, Morales RES, Leiva MG (2013) Photochemical ozone pollution in the Valparaiso Region, Chile. Air Qual Atmos Health:1–11.
  36. Toro R, Seguel RJ, Morales SRE, Leiva GM (2014) Ozone, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds in a central zone of Chile. Air Qual Atmos Health:1–13.
  37. Van Dingenen R, Dentener FJ, Raes F, Krol MC, Emberson L, Cofala J (2009) The global impact of ozone on agricultural crop yields under current and future air quality legislation. Atmos Environ 43:604–618. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. World Meteorological Organization (1957) Meteorology—a three-dimensional science: second session of the Commission for Aerology. WMO Bull IV(4):134–138Google Scholar
  39. Young PJ et al (2013) Pre-industrial to end 21st century projections of tropospheric ozone from the atmospheric chemistry and climate model intercomparison project (ACCMIP). Atmos Chem Phys 13:2063–2090. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental DepartmentTrade & International Advisory SAGUSantiagoChile
  2. 2.Centro de Ciencias Ambientales y Departamento de Química, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad de ChileSantiagoChile

Personalised recommendations