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Eradicating Cancer Stem Cells: Concepts, Issues, and Challenges

  • Gurpreet Kaur
  • Praveen Sharma
  • Nilambra Dogra
  • Sandeep Singh
Hot Topic

Opinion statement:

The cells of malignant cancers result in the evolution of cells with stem-like characteristics, commonly known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). Progress of anticancer therapies is severely hampered because of disease relapse mostly in a more aggressive form due to CSCs. These CSCs are more or less like embryonic or tissue stem cells, known for their capacity of self-renewal, exactly recapitulate of the original tumor. Deregulation of key stem cell pathways like Wnt, Hedgehog (Hh), and Notch is attributed towards the rise of CSCs. Recent breakthroughs offer better insights into CSC signaling. Scientists have developed several combinatorial therapies like targeting one/multiple of these CSC pathways. The article summarized various markers used to identify CSCs and discuss major signaling pathways in them. The futuristic probabilities to use CSC therapeutics in clinical development have been discussed. Our views have been highlighted on the future directions for targeting advances in the clinical development.

Keywords

Cancer stem cells Chemoresistance EpCAM Wnt Hh and Notch signaling 

Abbreviations

ABC

ATP-binding cassette

ALDH1

aldehyde dehydrogenase 1

APC

adenomatous polyposis coli

BCC

basal cell carcinoma

Bmi 1

B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1

BrdU

bromodeoxyuridine

BTSC

brain tumor stem cell

CBC

Crypt base columnar

CCL5

Chemokine C-C motif ligand 5

CCR5

Chemokine C-C Motif Receptor 5

CKIε

Casein Kinase Iε

CSCs

Cancer stem cells

CXCL12

C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12

CXCR4

Chemokine receptor type 4

DKK1

Dickkopf related protein 1

DLL

Delta-like ligands

EMT

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

EpCAM

Epithelial cell adhesion molecule

ES cells

Embryonic stem cells

ESA

Epithelial surface antigen

FGF20

Fibroblast growth factor 20

GBM

Glioblastomas

GCG

Glucagon

GI

Gastrointestinal

GPI-AP

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein

GSI

Gamma secretase inhibitors

Hh

Hedgehog

HpSCs

Hepatocellular stem cells

HSPCs

Hepatic stem/progenitor cells

ICD

Intracellular domain

IWR compounds

Inhibitors of Wnt response compounds

JAG1 and JAG2

Jagged proteins

MB

Medullo-blastoma

MSCs

Mesenchymal stem cells

NDRG2

N myc downregulated gene 2

NICD

Notch intracellular domain

NLK

Nemo-like kinase

NOD-SCID

Non-obese diabetic- severe combined immunodeficient

PPARγ

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ

SCFR

Stem cell factor receptor

SDF-1

Stromal cell-derived factor

SHh

Secreted Hedgehog ligands

Shh

Sonic Hedgehog

SMO

Small molecule anti-smoothened

SP

Side population

TACE

Tumor, necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme

TCF

T cell factor

WISP1

WNT1- inducible signaling pathway

Notes

Acknowledgements

All the authors thank the Vice-Chancellor of CUPB for the support.

Funding Information

The work was supported by CUPB-RSM and UGC startup grants.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Gurpreet Kaur, Praveen Sharma, Nilambra Dogra, and Sandeep Singh declare they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References and Recommended Reading

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and TechnologyCentral University of PunjabBathindaIndia
  2. 2.Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Human Genetics and Molecular MedicineCentral University of PunjabBathindaIndia
  3. 3.Department of Experimental Medicine and BiotechnologyPost Graduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia

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