Journal of Coastal Conservation

, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 235–245 | Cite as

Marine uses, synergies and conflicts. Evidence from Crete Island, Greece

Article

Abstract

Coastal zones and marine areas attract a large number of people and productive activities, a fact that causes important pressures on ecosystems and affects the cohesion of local societies. These areas – that is, the large number of islands and the extended coastline - are important for Greece, because of its geography. Coastal zones and marine areas are vulnerable socio-spatial systems exposed to menaces, such as: sea level rising, desertification phenomenon, built-up areas excessive expansion etc., thus, spatial planning is required for their sustainable management, something that is not always easy to implement. The paper aims to discuss key issues of spatial planning emerged from the ratification of an integrated framework for marine planning in the national spatial planning system. For better understanding of the particularities of Greek spatial planning procedures, the island of Crete is chosen as a case study area, where synergies, conflicts and methodological issues come up at regional and local level.

Keywords

Spatial planning Marine spatial planning Marine uses The island of Crete Greece 

References

  1. AIS Marine Traffic (2015) https://www.marinetraffic.com/. Accessed 28 Dec 2016
  2. Alexandrakis G, Ghionis G, Poulos SE, Kampanis NA (2013) Greece. In: Pranzini E, Williams AT (eds) Coastal erosion and Protection in Europe: A Comprehensive Overview. EARTHSCAN Ltd, London, pp 355–377Google Scholar
  3. Alexandrakis G, Manasakis C, Poulos SE, Kampanis NA (2015) Valuating the effects of beach erosion to tourism revenue. A management perspective. Ocean Coast Manag 111:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. CEC (Commission of the European Communities) (2007) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. An Integrated marine Policy for the European UnionGoogle Scholar
  5. CEC (Commission of the European Communities) (2008) Communication from the Commission. In: Roadmap for Maritime Spatial Planning: Achieving Common Principles in the EU. COM(2008) 791. CEC, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  6. CEC (Commission of the European Communities) (2012) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Blue Growth opportunities for marine and marine sustainable growthGoogle Scholar
  7. Chang Y, Lin B-H (2016) Improving marine spatial planning by using an incremental amendment strategy: The case of Anping, Taiwan. Mar Policy 68:30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coccossis H, Mexa A (2002) The coastal zone. In: Coccossis H (ed) Man and the environment in Greece [H paraktia zoni sto Anthropos kai Periballon stin Ellada, in Greek]. Hellenic Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, Athens, pp 74–81Google Scholar
  9. Dawson RJ, Dickson ME, Nicholls RJ, Hall JW, Walkden MJA, Stansby PK, Mokrech M, Richards J, Zhou J, Milligan J, Jordan A, Pearson S, Rees J, Bates PD, Koukoulas S, Watkinson AR (2009) Integrated analysis of risks of coastal flooding and cliff erosion under scenarios of long term change. Clim Chang 95(1):249–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Directorate of Fisheries Control (2017) http://www.hcg.gr/alieia/main.php/. Accessed 9 Jan 2017
  11. Douvere F (2008) The importance of marine spatial planning in advancing ecosystem-based sea use management. Mar Policy 32:762–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Douvere F (2010) Marine Spatial Planning Concepts, current practice and linkages to other management approaches. Ghent University, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  13. Ehler C, Douvere F (2007) Visions for a Sea Change. Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and Man and the Biosphere Programme. IOC Manual and Guides 48, IOCAM Dossier 4, Paris, UNESCOGoogle Scholar
  14. Ehler C, Douvere F (2009) Marine Spatial Planning: a step-by-step approach toward ecosystem-based management, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and Man and the Biosphere Programme. IOC Manual and Guides, No 53, ICAM Dossier, No 6. Paris: UNESCOGoogle Scholar
  15. ELSTAT (Hellenic Statistical Authority) (2011) http://www.statistics.gr/en/home
  16. EP&C (European Parliament and of the Council) (2008) Directive 2008/56/EC, establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy - Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Off J Eur Union, L 164/19Google Scholar
  17. EP&C (European Parliament and of the Council) (2013) (Proposal for a) Directiv e 2013/133,establishing a framework for marine spatial planning and integrated coastal management. COM(2013) 133,BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  18. Freeman MC, Whiting L, Kelly RP (2016) Assessing potential spatial and temporal conflicts in Washington's marine waters. Mar Policy 70:137–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gounaridis D, Koukoulas S (2016) Urban land cover thematic disaggregation, employing datasets from multiple sources and RandomForests modeling. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 51:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gramolini R, Grati F, Fabi G, Schulze T (2013) Interaction in coastal waters: A roadmap to sustainable integration of aquaculture and fisheries. Deliverable D3.9. GRID GeoReference Interactions Database. COEXISTGoogle Scholar
  21. Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (2016) Institute of Marine Biology, Biotechnology and Aquaculture. http://www.hcmr.gr/. Accessed 15 Dec 2016
  22. Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports (2016) List of Archaeological Sites and Monuments. http://listedmonuments.culture.gr/. Accessed 20 Dec 2016
  23. Luz Fernandes M, Esteves TC, Oliveira ER, Alves FL (2017) How does the cumulative impacts approach support marine Spatial Planning? Ecol Indic 73:189–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Maes F (2008) The international legal framework for marine spatial planning. Mar Policy 32:797–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Maes F, De Batist M, Vincx M (2005) Towards a Spatial Structure Plan for Sustainable Management for the Sea. Research project for scientific support of the government Policy on Sustainable Development. Scientific support plan for a sustainable development policy (SPSD II). Final report. Belgian Science PolicyGoogle Scholar
  26. MEE (Ministry of the Environment and Energy) (2011) http://www.ypeka.gr/. Accessed 20 Dec 2016
  27. MEE (Ministry of the Environment and Energy) (2016) Marine Spatial Planning. Country Information. Greece. EU MSP PlatformGoogle Scholar
  28. Navionics Webapp (2017) http://www.navionics.com/. Accessed 10 Jan 2017
  29. NCMA (National Cadastre and Mapping Agency) (2015). Orthophotos for Greece 2010. NCMA, AthensGoogle Scholar
  30. OGG (Official Government Gazette) (1936) Determining the territorial sea of Greece. Greek Official Gazette 450-A/13.10.1936. [Peri kathorismou aigialitidas zonis tis Ellados, in Greek]. Efimeris tis Kyverniseos 450-A/13.10.1936. Law no. 230/1936Google Scholar
  31. OGG (Official Government Gazette) (1999) Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development and Other Provisions. Greek Official Gazette 207-Α/07.10.1999. [Chorotaxikos sxediasmos kai aeiforos anaptyxi kai alles diataxeis, in Greek]. Efimeris tis Kyverniseos 207-Α/07.10.1999. Law no. 2742 / 1999Google Scholar
  32. OGG (Official Government Gazette) (2003) Regional Framework of Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development for the periphery of Crete. Greek Official Gazette 1486 B/10.10.2003. [Perifereiako plaisio xorotaksikou sxediasmoy kai aiforou anaptiksis perifereias Krhths, in Greek]. Efimeris tis Kyverniseos 1486 B/10.10.2003Google Scholar
  33. OGG (Official Government Gazette) (2008a) National spatial planning and sustainable development framework. Greek Official Gazette 128-A/03.07.2008. [Geniko plaisio xorotaxikou sxediasmoy kai aiforou anaptiksi, in Greek]. Efimeris tis Kyverniseos 128-A/03.07.2008Google Scholar
  34. OGG (Official Government Gazette) (2008b) Special Framework for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development Framework for Renewable Energy Sources and strategic environmental impact assessment. Greek Official Gazette 2464 Β/03.12.2008. [“Eidiko plaisio Chorotaxikoύ Schediasmou kai Aeifόroy Anaptyxis gia tis Ananeosimes piges Energias kai tis stratigikis meletis periballontikon epiptoseon aytoy”, in Greek]. Efimeris tis Kyverniseos 2464 Β/03.12.2008Google Scholar
  35. OGG (Official Government Gazette) (2009) Special Framework for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development Framework for Tourism and strategic environmental impact assessment. Official Government Gazette 1138 Β/11.06.2009. [“Eidiko plaisio Chorotaxiko Schediasmoy kai Aeifόroy Anaptyxis gia ton Toyrismo kai tis stratigikis meletis periballontikon epiptoseon aytoy”, in Greek]. Efimeris tis Kyverniseos 1138 Β/11.06.2009Google Scholar
  36. OGG (Official Government Gazette) (2011a) Special Framework for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development Framework of Aquaculture and strategic environmental impact assessment. Greek Official Gazette 2505/Β/04.11.2011. [“Eidikό plaisio Chorotaxikoy Schediasmoy kai Aeiforoy Anaptyxis gia tis Ydatokalliergeies kai tis stratigikis meletis periballontikon epiptoseon aytoy”, in Greek]. Efimeris tis Kyverniseos 2505/Β/04.11.2011Google Scholar
  37. OGG (Official Government Gazette) (2011b) Standards adoption for the preparation of the Regional Frameworks for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development. Greek Official Gazette. 45 AAP/14.03.2011. [“Egrisi prodiagraphon gia ti sintaksi ton Perifereiakon Plaision Chorotaxikoύ Schediasmou kai Aeifόroy Anaptyxis”, in Greek]. Efimeris tis Kyverniseos 45 ΑΑΠ/Β/14.03.2011Google Scholar
  38. OGG (Official Government Gazette) (2014) Regional planning and urban planning reformation - Sustainable development. Greek Official Gazette 142-Α/ 28.06.2014. [“Chorotaxiki kai poleodomiki metarithmisi – Viosimi anaptyksi”, in Greek], Efimeris tis Kyverniseos 142-Α/ 28.06.2014. Law 4269/2014Google Scholar
  39. OGG (Official Government Gazette) (2016) Spatial planning - Sustainable development and other provisions. Greek Official Gazette 241-Α/23.12.2016. [“Chorikos schediasmos - Viósimi anaptyxi kai alles diataxeis”, in Greek]. Efimeris tis Kyverniseos 241-Α/23.12.2016. Law no. 4447 / 2016Google Scholar
  40. Open geospatial data and services for Greece (2015). http://geodata.gov.gr/. Accessed 17 Dec 2016
  41. Schultz-Zehden A, Gee K, Scibior K (2008) HANDBOOK on Integrated marine Spatial Planning. INTERREG III B CADSES. PlanCoast ProjectGoogle Scholar
  42. Smith H, Maes F, Stojanovic T, Ballinger R (2011) The integration of land and marine spatial planning. J Coast Conserv Plann 15:291–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stefani F, Tsilimigkas G, Gourliotis A (2016) Issues of establishing a comprehensive framework for marine Spatial Planning. [Zitimata syntaksis enos olokliromenou plaisiou gia ton Thalassio Xorotaksiko Sxediasmo, in Greek]. Aeihoros. Issue 23. Spatial development and planning, marine spatial planning and integrated coastal area management, pp 135–150Google Scholar
  44. Tsilimigkas G, Kizos T (2014) Space, pressures and the management of the Greek landscape. Geogr Ann Ser B Hum Geogr 96(2):159–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tsilimigkas G, Rempis N (2017) Marine spatial planning and spatial planning: Synergy issues and incompatibilities. Evidence from Crete island, Greece. Ocean Coast Manag 139:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tsilimigkas G, Deligianni M, Zerbopoulos T (2016) Spatial typologies of Greek coastal zones and unregulated urban growth. J Coast Conserv 20(5):397–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. UNCED (1992) Agenda 21, United Nations Conference on Environment and Development Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 3 to 14 June 1992. Available at: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Agenda21.pdf
  48. UNCLOS (1982) United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Available at: www.un.org/deptsllos/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf
  49. UNEP (1995) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean, 1995. UNEP/MAP, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  50. UNEP/MAP (1976) Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution (Barcelona Convention). UNEP, Barcelona, 1976Google Scholar
  51. UNEP/MAP/PAP (2008) Protocol on Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Mediterranean. Split, Priority Actions Programme, 21 January 2008, Madrid, SpainGoogle Scholar
  52. Waldo T (1988) Resolution, Resampling, and All That. In: Mounsey H, Tomlinson R (eds) Building Data Bases for Global Science. Taylor and Francis, London, pp 129–137Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of the AegeanMytileneGreece

Personalised recommendations