Journal of Coastal Conservation

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 127–138 | Cite as

Coastal types of graben: the Gulf of Gökova, Mugla-SW Turkey

  • Murat Gül
  • Iliya Bauchi Danladi
  • Basiru Mohammed Kore


Grabens are formed under the influence of extensional forces in a normal fault system. The Gulf of Gökova is an active graben located in SW Turkey. Active grabens such as the Gökova enclose highly faulted rocky coasts. Despite the existence of these rocky coasts, examination of google earth images, field studies, DEM analysis and previous studies in the Gulf of Gökova graben revealed that there could be different types of coasts in the region. In this study the factors causing the occurrence and potential environmental effects of the diverse coast types are evaluated. By using the Fairbridge (2004) coastal classification system, the coast types identified in the Gulf of Gökova graben can be classified as; A. Soft-less consolidated-erodible; A1: relatively Insoluble: detrital and loose beach, A2: soluble: beachrock and eolinite B. hard-cliffed-rocky, B1: longevity of hard-rock coast and B2: fault controlled cliffs. The percentages of these classes generally decreased from B1 (79%), A1 (12.4%), B2 (8.3%) and A2 (0.3%) in the study area. As a result of longshore currents, A1-type coasts usually develop as large plain adjacent streams and also in pocket beaches as narrow-long strips near rocky coasts. A2 type is observed in one location within the Gökova region, possibly due to local environmental conditions. However, B1 type developed in peridotites, cherty limestone and cliffs probably because of the active fault system and where the fault plane cut the coast, B2 type occurred. Possible threats to the Gökova region can be attributed to sea level rise owing to tectonism and global warming. It is anticipated that inundation, coastal erosion and salt water intrusion may also affect it.


Coastal classification Sea level rise Global warming Graben Gulf of Gökova SW Turkey 



The authors wished to thank Anonymous reviewers and the Editor in Chief Dr. David Richard Green for their valuable contributions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Murat Gül
    • 1
  • Iliya Bauchi Danladi
    • 1
  • Basiru Mohammed Kore
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geological Engineering, Engineering FacultyMugla Sıtkı Koçman UniversityKotekli-MuğlaTurkey

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