A clean method for bismuth extraction was investigated by multiphase roasting and beneficiation. Iron oxide and carbon, used as the sulfur-fixing agent and reductant, were roasted with Bi2S3, yielding Bi metal and iron sulfide. The products were separated by gravity separation. The predominance-area diagrams of Bi-Fe-S-O indicated that the stable zone of Bi + FeS increases with increasing temperature. The reaction equilibrium simulations among Bi2S3, Fe2O3, and C verified that Bi and FeS were the final products at > 400°C and without SO2 generation when the reductant was sufficient. Reaction process investigations of the Bi2S3-Fe2O3-C multiphase system indicated that the Bi generation rate and sulfur-fixing rate reached 94.17% and 96.79% at 800°C. In the kilogram confirmation test of the entire process, the recovery rate of metallic Bi and the sulfur-fixing rate reached 92.28% and 95.17%. The new process reduces the smelting temperature and improves SO2 emissions.
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This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51604105 and 51704107) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province (No. 2018JJ4069). We gratefully acknowledge many helpful comments and suggestions from the anonymous reviewers.
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Ye, L., Wen, P., Ouyang, Z. et al. Clean and SO2-Free Method for Bismuth Extraction from Bismuthinite by Multiphase Roasting: Thermodynamic Equilibria and Reaction Mechanisms. JOM (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-020-04250-0