Inclusion agglomeration and flotation during levitation melting in a cold crucible were investigated. The morphology, number and chemical composition of inclusions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis. In the billet, inclusions were mainly single mixed inclusions (oxide as the core, nitride as the shell), and their size was in the range of 1–7 μm. After levitation melting, approximately 81% of inclusions existed in the form of clusters. The number of clusters was higher at the top, and the size was larger at the top (150–250 μm). The mechanism of levitation melting removing inclusions was discussed by collision theory. First, nitrides dissolved, and the core oxides were exposed. Then, oxides collided, agglomerated, and floated. Turbulent collision played the leading role in inclusion agglomeration, while Stokes collision was predominant for inclusion flotation. Finally, nitrides precipitated again during solidification.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
M.H. Manjili and M. Halali, Metall. Mater. Trans. B 49, 61 (2017).
D. Texier, J. Cormier, P. Villechaise, J.C. Stinville, C.J. Torbet, S. Pierret, and T.M. Pollock, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 678, 122 (2016).
G.L. Miao, X.G. Yang, and D.Q. Shi, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 668, 66 (2016).
J. Jiang, J. Yang, T.T. Zhang, F.P.E. Dunne, and T.B. Britton, Acta Mater. 97, 367 (2015).
Q.F. You, H. Yuan, L.H. Zhao, J.Y. Li, X.G. You, S. Shi, Y. Tan, and X.F. Ding, Vacuum 156, 39 (2018).
H. Wang, Y.B. Zhong, Q. Li, Y.P. Fang, W.L. Ren, Z.S. Lei, and Z.M. Ren, Metall. Mater. Trans. B 48, 655 (2016).
S.C. Duan, X. Shi, M.T. Mao, W.S. Yang, S.W. Han, H.J. Guo, and J. Guo, Sci. Rep. 8, 5232 (2018).
K. Wu, G.Q. Liu, B.F. Hu, C.Y. Wang, Y.W. Zhang, Y. Tao, and J.T. Liu, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 528, 4620 (2011).
W.P. Yang, G.Q. Liu, K. Wu, and B.F. Hu, J. Alloys Compd. 582, 515 (2014).
A. Choudhury, ISIJ Int. 32, 563 (1992).
X. Xu, R.M. Ward, M.H. Jacobs, P.D. Lee, and M. Mclean, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 33, 1795 (2002).
R.L. Williamson, J.J. Beaman, D.K. Melgaard, G.J. Shelmidine, and R. Morrison, Metall. Mater. Trans. B 35, 101 (2004).
S.A. Hosseini, S.M. Abbasi, and K.Z. Madar, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 712, 780 (2018).
S.J. Sun, Y.Z. Tian, H.R. Lin, X.G. Dong, Y.H. Wang, Z.J. Zhang, and Z.F. Zhang, Mater. Des. 133, 122 (2017).
S.Q. Xia and Y. Zhang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 733, 408 (2018).
S.Q. Xia, M.C. Gao, T.F. Yang, P.K. Liaw, and Y. Zhang, J. Nucl. Mater. 480, 100 (2016).
S.Q. Xia, X. Yang, T.F. Yang, S. Liu, and Y. Zhang, JOM 67, 2340 (2015).
Y.Z. Li, F. Hu, L. Luo, J.Y. Xu, Z.W. Zhao, Y.H. Zhang, and D.L. Zhao, Catal. Today 318, 103 (2018).
D. Rabadia, Y.J. Liu, G.H. Cao, Y.H. Li, C.W. Zhang, T.B. Sercombe, H. Sun, and L.C. Zhang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 732, 368 (2018).
M.Y. Wu, X.R. Yang, R.X. Zou, F.J. Qian, S.Y. Hu, W.Y. Wang, G.L. Zhong, X.F. Miao, and F. Xu, Mater. Lett. 236, 579 (2019).
Z.D. Yao, X.Z. Xiao, Z.Q. Liang, H.Q. Kou, W.H. Luo, C.G. Chen, L.J. Jiang, and L.X. Chen, J. Alloys Compd. 784, 1062 (2019).
M. Besse, P. Castany, and T. Gloriant, Acta Mater. 59, 5982 (2011).
T. Toh, H. Yamamura, H. Kondo, M. Wakoh, S.I. Shimasaki, and S. Taniguchi, ISIJ Int. 47, 1625 (2007).
T. Toh, H. Yamamura, H. Kondo, M. Wakoh, and E. Takeuchi, ISIJ Int. 45, 984 (2005).
Z.C. Peng, G.F. Tian, J. Jiang, M.Z. Li, Y. Chen, J.W. Zou, and F.P.E. Dunne, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 676, 441 (2016).
B. Fang, Z. Ji, M. Liu, G.F. Tian, C.C. Jia, T.T. Zeng, B.F. Hu, and Y.H. Chang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 593, 8 (2014).
M.G. Li, H. Matsuura, and F. Tsukihashi, Mater. Charact. 136, 358 (2018).
M. Nuspl, W. Wegscheider, J. Angeli, W. Posch, and M. Mayr, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379, 640 (2004).
N. Choi, K.R. Lim, Y.S. Na, U. Glatzel, and J.H. Park, J. Alloys Compd. 763, 546 (2018).
X. Yin, Y. Yang, D. Li, Y. Sun, X. Deng, M. Barati, and A. McLean, Ironmak. Steelmak. 44, 140 (2017).
Z.Y. Deng and M.Y. Zhu, ISIJ Int. 53, 450 (2013).
M. Jiang, X.H. Wang, B. Chen, and W.J. Wang, ISIJ Int. 50, 95 (2010).
M. Jiang, X.H. Wang, and W.J. Wang, Steel Res. Int. 81, 759 (2010).
S.J. Luo, Y.H.F. Su, M.J. Lu, and J.C. Kuo, Mater. Charact. 82, 103 (2013).
H. Goto, K.I. Miyazawa, and K. Tanaka, ISIJ Int. 35, 286 (1995).
L. Yang and G.G. Cheng, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater. 24, 869 (2017).
W.J. Ma, Y.P. Bao, L.H. Zhao, and M. Wang, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater. 21, 234 (2014).
Y. Liu, L.F. Zhang, H.J. Duan, Y. Zhang, Y. Luo, and A.N. Conejo, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 47A, 3015 (2016).
Q.R. Tian, G.C. Wang, D.L. Shang, H. Lei, X.H. Yuan, Q. Wang, and J. Li, Metall. Mater. Trans. B 49B, 3137 (2018).
Q.R. Tian, G.C. Wang, Y. Zhao, J. Li, and Q. Wang, Metall. Mater. Trans. B 49B, 1149 (2018).
L. Yang, G.G. Cheng, S.J. Li, M. Zhao, and G.P. Feng, ISIJ Int. 55, 1693 (2015).
This work is financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (51574030, 51174029) and National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFB0305600, 2016YFB0301400).
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Gao, X., Zhang, L., Luan, Y. et al. Investigation of Inclusion Agglomeration and Flotation During Levitation Melting of Ni-Based Superalloy in a Cold Crucible. JOM (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-020-04238-w