Separation and Extraction of Valuable Metals from Electroplating Sludge by Carbothermal Reduction and Low-Carbon Reduction Refining

A Correction to this article is available

This article has been updated


This paper proposes an innovative carbothermal reduction roasting low-carbon redox refining process for recovering valuable metals, including copper, zinc, nickel, tin and lead, from electroplating sludge. First, the valuable metals are volatilized into the flue gas by carbothermal reduction roasting. At a reduction temperature of 1473 K, a carbon content of 20%, and a reaction time of 60 min, the ratio of Pb, Sn and Zn removal reached 90.77%, 95.14% and 99.92%, respectively. At an oxidation temperature of 1573 K, a SiO2 content of 6% and a reaction time of 180 min, a water-quenching slag suitable for building materials was obtained by low-carbon oxidation reduction refining. Finally, at a reduction temperature of 1473 K, 8% C addition, and a reaction time of 20 min, copper and nickel were enriched on an anode copper plate and the copper content reached more than 98%, meeting the requirements for copper electrolysis.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Change history

  • 04 August 2020

    Mudan Liu���s name appeared incorrectly on the original publication of this article. It appears correctly here.


  1. 1.

    D. Kuchar, T. Fukuta, M.S. Onyango, and H. Matsuda, J. Hazard. Mater. 138, 86 (2006).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    M.Y. Pamukoglu and F. Kargi, Environ. Eng. Sci. 25, 1159 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    C. Zhou, S. Ge, H. Yu, T. Zhang, H. Cheng, Q. Sun, and R. Xiao, J. Clean. Prod. 177, 699 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    W. Xu, W. Liu, H.C. Zhu, J.C. Xu, G.M. Li, D. Fu, and L. Luo, Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 24, 367 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    E. Radzymińska-Lenarcik, M. Sulewski, and W. Urbaniak, Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 24, 1277 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    F.C. Chang, S.L. Lo, and C.H. Ko, Sep. Purif. Technol. 53, 49 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    V. Sethu, A. Aziz, and M. Aroua, Clean Technol. Environ. Policy 10, 131 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    J. Jandova, T. Stefanova, and R. Niemczykova, Hydrometallurgy 57, 77 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    E. De Souza, P.T. Silva, N.T. De Mello, M.M. Menezes Duarte, M.C.B.S.M. Montenegro, A.N. Araújo, B. De Barros Neto, and V.L. Da Silva, J. Hazard. Mater. 128, 39 (2006).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    R.J. Su, B. Liang, and J. Guan, Proc. Environ. Sci. 31, 361 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    C. Li, F. Xie, Y. Ma, T. Cai, H. Li, Z. Huang, and G. Yuan, J. Hazard. Mater. 178, 823 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    C. Wang, Chem. Environ. Protect. 32, 25 (2012) (in Chinese).

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    F. Vegliò, R. Quaresima, and P. Fornari, Waste Manag 3, 245 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    S. Wang, Aqueous Process 60, 41 (2008).

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    P. Sarker and M.N. Huda, Comput. Mater. Sci. 111, 359 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


Financial support were provided by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51804136 and 51764016), Jiangxi Province Nature Science Foundation (No. 20181BAB216017), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Nos. 2019T120625 and 2019M652276), Key Projects of Jiangxi Key R&D Plan (No. 20192ACB70017), Jiangxi Science and Technology Landing Project (No. KJLD13046), Funded by the Research Fund Program of State Key Laboratory of Rare Metals Separation and Comprehensive Utilization (No. GK-201803).

Author information



Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Zhi-Feng Xu or Yong Liu.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tian, L., Chen, L., Gong, A. et al. Separation and Extraction of Valuable Metals from Electroplating Sludge by Carbothermal Reduction and Low-Carbon Reduction Refining. JOM 72, 782–789 (2020).

Download citation