, Volume 70, Issue 6, pp 806–810 | Cite as

Investigation of the Self-Healing Behavior of Sn-Bi Metal Matrix Composite Reinforced with NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Strips Under Flexural Loading

  • Mohammad Amin Poormir
  • Seyed Mohammad Reza Khalili
  • Reza Eslami-Farsani
Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites


Utilizing intelligent materials such as shape memory alloys as reinforcement in metal matrix composites is a novel method to mimic self-healing behavior. In this study, the bending behavior of a self-healing metal matrix composite made from Sn-13 wt.% Bi alloy as matrix and NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) strips as reinforcement is investigated. Specimens were fabricated in different reinforcement vol.% (0.78, 1.55, 2.33) and in various pre-strains (0, 2, 6%) and were healed at three healing temperatures (170°C, 180°C, 190°C). Results showed that shape recovery was accomplished in all the specimens, but not all of them were able to withstand second loading after healing. Only specimens with 2.33 vol.% of SMA strips, 1.55 vol.% of SMA, and 6% pre-strain could endure bending force after healing, and they gained 35.31–51.83% of bending force self-healing efficiency.


  1. 1.
    S. Van der Zwaag, N. Van Dijk, H. Jonkers, S. Mookhoek, and W. Sloof, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 367, 1689 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Kousourakis and A. Mouritz, Smart Mater. Struct. 19, 1 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A.C. Ruzek, Synthesis and characterization of metallic systems with potential for self-healing, 1st ed. (Wisconsin: Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2009), pp. 1–120.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Martinez-Lucci, A. Ruzek, S. Misra, P. Rohatgi, and R. Amano, Trans. Am. Foundry Soc. 11, 277 (2011).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.M. Lucci, R. Amano, P. Rohatgi, and B. Schultz, ASME International Conference on Energy Sustainability, Proceedings, 3rd, 79 (2008).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.M. Lucci, R. Amano, P. Rohatgi, and B. Schultz, Proceeding of ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (2009), p. 1759.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.V. Manuel and G.B. Olson, Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Self-Healing Materials (2007), p. 18.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M.V. Manuel, Design of a biomimetic self-healing alloy composite, 1st ed. (Chicago: Doctoral dissertation, North western University, 2007), pp. 42–93.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. Fisher and M. Manuel, AIP Conference Proceedings (2012), p. 1.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C.R. Fisher, Design of liquid-assisted self-healing metal-matrix composites, (Florida: Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 2013), pp. 1–190.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S.K. Misra, Shape Memory Alloy Reinforced Self-healing Metal Matrix Composites, (Wisconsin: MSc dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2013), pp. 1–100.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Rohatgi, Mater. Sci. Eng. 619, 73 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Ferguson, B. Schultz, and P. Rohatgi, Mater. Sci. Eng. 620, 85 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Zhu, Z. Cui, M.S. Kesler, J.A. Newman, M.V. Manuel, M.C. Wright, and L.C. Brinson, Mech. Mater. 103, 1 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Y. Nishida, Introduction to Metal Matrix Composites: Fabrication and Recycling, 1st ed. (Tokyo: Springer, 2013), pp. 20–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Coughlin, J. Williams, and N. Chawla, J. Mater. Sci. 44, 700 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Coughlin, J. Williams, G. Crawford, and N. Chawla, Metall. Trans. A 40, 176 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    ASTM, Standard Test Method for Bend Testing of Metallic Materials for Ductility, (USA: Annu. Book ASTM Stand. 08.01, 2008).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Amin Poormir
    • 1
  • Seyed Mohammad Reza Khalili
    • 1
    • 2
  • Reza Eslami-Farsani
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringK. N. Toosi University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Applied MechanicsIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Faculty of Materials Science and EngineeringK. N. Toosi University of TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations