The dark side of organic vegetables: interactions of human enteropathogenic bacteria with plants
Many recent studies reported that several pathogenic bacteria rely on multiple hosts during their life cycle. Specifically, Gram-negative enteropathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157:H7, infect both human and plant hosts. These multi-kingdom pathogenic bacteria cause food-associated outbreaks in human by active invasion of the host. In the current review, we cover the interactions between human enteropathogenic bacteria and plants. In particular, we describe the current state of knowledge on the mechanisms of adhesion, invasion, and colonization of the plant hosts by human enteropathogenic bacteria, and describe plant innate immune responses to virulence factors produced by these bacteria.
KeywordsEnteropathogenic bacteria Alternative host Food-borne disease Innate immune responses
This work was supported by the KRIBB Initiative Program and the Basic Research Program of National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2017R1A2B4012820 to J.M.P.) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT.
- Bhavsar AP, Brown NF, Stoepel J, Wiermer M, Martin DD, Hsu KJ, Imami K, Ross CJ, Hayden MR, Foster LJ, Li X, Hieter P, Finlay BB (2013) The Salmonella type III effector SspH2 specifically exploits the NLR co-chaperone activity of SGT1 to subvert immunity. PLoS Pathog 9:e1003518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Garcia AV, Charrier A, Schikora A, Bigeard J, Pateyron S, de Tauzia-Moreau ML, Evrard A, Mithofer A, Martin-Magniette ML, Virlogeux-Payant I, Hirt H (2014) Salmonella enterica flagellin is recognized via FLS2 and activates PAMP-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Plant 7:657–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kisluk G, Kalily E, Yaron S (2013) Resistance to essential oils affects survival of Salmonella enterica serovars in growing and harvested basil. Environ Microbiol 15:2787–2798Google Scholar
- Neumann C, Fraiture M, Hernandez-Reyes C, Akum FN, Virlogeux-Payant I, Chen Y, Pateyron S, Colcombet J, Kogel KH, Hirt H, Brunner F, Schikora A (2014) The Salmonella effector protein SpvC, a phosphothreonine lyase is functional in plant cells. Front Microbiol 5:548Google Scholar
- Ongeng D, Vasquez GA, Muyanja C, Ryckeboer J, Geeraerd AH, Springael D (2011) Transfer and internalisation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in cabbage cultivated on contaminated manure-amended soil under tropical field conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Food Microbiol 145:301–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar