Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering

, Volume 34, Issue 11, pp 2787–2805 | Cite as

Sources and impacts of pharmaceutical components in wastewater and its treatment process: A review

  • Kirubanandam Grace Pavithra
  • Ponnusamy Senthil Kumar
  • Panneerselvam Sundar Rajan
  • Anbalagan Saravanan
  • Mu Naushad
Invited Review Paper
  • 96 Downloads

Abstract

Pharmaceutical compounds and their derivatives are major pollutants in the environment, as their metabolites affect the terrestrial as well as aquatic organisms in one or another way. In recent times, many papers have discussed the treatment procedures for single pharmaceutical and mixture of pharmaceutical components, but only few papers have discussed the fate and the exposure of pharmaceutical contaminants in our environment. In this paper, we discuss the sources and the forms of pharmaceutical products and their resultant in the environment and their addition to the microbial and to human communities. A detailed discussion of various treatment techniques from conventional to current techniques, their advantages and disadvantages is given here. Researchers are finding the techniques in order to completely degrade the contaminants and their transformed products from the environment. Among the technique, s nanotechnology was found to be an efficient technique, and the combination of nanotechnology with other conventional technologies gives higher removal efficiency.

Keywords

Derivatives Metabolites Exposure Contaminants Nanotechnology 

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Copyright information

© Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers, Seoul, Korea 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kirubanandam Grace Pavithra
    • 1
  • Ponnusamy Senthil Kumar
    • 1
  • Panneerselvam Sundar Rajan
    • 1
  • Anbalagan Saravanan
    • 1
  • Mu Naushad
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringSSN College of EngineeringChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Bld#5King Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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