They not only directly impact aquatic organisms, but also indirectly impact these organisms by interacting with background toxins in the environment. Moreover, under realistic environmental conditions, algae, a natural food for aquatic organisms, may alter the toxicity pattern related to MPs. In this research, we first examined the toxicity of MPs alone, and their effect on the toxicity of lead (Pb) on Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia), a model aquatic organism for toxicity survey. Then, we investigated the effect of algae on the combined toxicity of MPs and Pb. We observed that, MPs significantly increased Pb toxicity, which was related to the increase in soluble Pb concentration and the intake of Pb-loaded MPs, both of which increased the accumulation of Pb in C. dubia. The presence of algae mitigated the combined toxicity of MPs and Pb, although algae alone increased Pb accumulation. Therefore, the toxicity mitigation through algae uptake came from mechanisms other than Pb accumulation, which will need further investigation.
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Authors appreciate the facility support from the Center for Research in Energy and Environment (CREE) at Missouri S&T, and the help from Xiaolong He and Shuo Yang from the Chemistry Department at Missouri S&T, for TOC analysis and SEM image.
• Micro-plastics (MPs) significantly increase Pb toxicity.
• Algae reduce the combined toxicity of MP and Pb.
• The toxicity increase comes from high soluble Pb and MP-Pb uptake.
• The toxicity reduction might come from energy related pathway.
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Liu, X., Wang, J. Algae (Raphidocelis subcapitata) mitigate combined toxicity of microplastic and lead on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. 14, 97 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-020-1276-3
- C. dubia