Iron Regulation of Wetland Vegetation Performance Through Synchronous Effects on Phosphorus Acquisition Efficiency
- 23 Downloads
Iron-rich groundwater flowing into wetlands is a worldwide environmental pollution phenomenon that is closely associated with the stability of wetland ecosystems. Combined with high phosphorus (P) loading from agricultural runoff, the prediction of the evolution of wetland vegetation affected by compound contamination is particularly urgent. We tested the effects of anaerobic iron-rich groundwater discharge in a freshwater marsh by simulating the effect of three levels of eutrophic water on native plants (Glyceria spiculosa (Fr. Schmidt.) Rosh.). The management of wetland vegetation with 1–20 mg/L Fe input is an efficient method to promote the growth of plants, which showed an optimum response under a 0.10 mg/L P surface water environment. Iron-rich groundwater strongly affects the changes in ecological niches of some wetland plant species and the dominant species. In addition, when the P concentration in a natural body of water is too high, the governance effect of eutrophication might not be as expected. Under iron-rich groundwater conditions, the δ13C values of organs were more depleted, which can partially explain the differences in δ13C in the soil profile. Conversely, the carbon isotope composition of soil organic carbon is indicative of past changes in vegetation. The results of our experiments confirm that iron-rich groundwater discharge has the potential to affect vegetation composition through toxicity modification in eutrophic environments.
Keywordsiron-rich groundwater wetland vegetation phosphorus (P) eutrophication
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
We thank Prof. Marinus Otte of North Dakota State University and Prof. Guangzhi Sun of Edith Cowan University for their constructive comments on the early version of this manuscript.
- Hoagland D R, Arnon D I, 1950. The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. California Agricultural Experiment Station Circular, 347: 1–32.Google Scholar
- Larbi A, Abadía A, Morales F et al., 2004. Fe resupply to Fe-deficient sugar beet plants leads to rapid changes in the violaxanthin cycle and other photosynthetic characteristics without significant de novo chlorophyll synthesis. Photosynthesis Research, 79(1): 59–69. doi: 10.1023/B:PRES.0000011919.35309.5eCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Le Roux D, Stock W D, Bond W J et al., 1996. Dry mass allocation, water use efficiency and d13C in clones of Eucalyptus grandis, E. grandis × camaldulensis and E. grandis × nitens grown under two irrigation regimes. Tree Physiology, 16(5): 497–502. doi: 10.1093/treephys/16.5.497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Marschner P, 2011. Marschner’s Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. 3rd ed. London: Academic Press, 191–199.Google Scholar
- Van der Welle M E W, Niggebrugge K, Lamers L P M et al., 2007. Differential responses of the freshwater wetland species Juncus effusus L. and Caltha palustris L. to iron supply in sulfidic environments. Environmental Pollution, 147(1): 222–230. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2006.08.024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Williams D G, Ehleringer J R, 2000. Carbon isotope discrimination and water relations of oak hybrid populations in southwestern Utah. Western North American Naturalist, 60(2): 121–129.Google Scholar
- Zhang Xianzheng, 1986. Determination of plant chlorophyll content by a mixture of acetone and ethanol. Liaoning Agricultural Science, (3): 26–28. (in Chinese)Google Scholar