RETRACTED ARTICLE: Spatial interaction and network structure evolvement of cities in terms of China’s rail passenger flows


Cities separated in space are connected together by spatial interaction (SI) between them. But the studies focusing on the SI are relatively few in China mainly because of the scarcity of data. This paper deals with the SI in terms of rail passenger flows, which is an important aspect of the network structure of urban agglomeration. By using a data set consisting of rail O-D (origin-destination) passenger flows among nearly 200 cities, inter-city rail distance O-D matrixes, and some other indices, it is found that the attenuating tendency of rail passenger is obvious. And by the analysis on dominant flows and spatial structure of flows, we find that passenger flows have a trend of polarizing to hubs while the linkages between hubs upgrade. However, the gravity model reveals an overall picture of convergence process over time which is not in our expectation of integration process in the framework of globalization and economic integration. Some driven factors for the re-organization process of the structure of urban agglomeration, such as technique advance, globalization, etc. are discussed further based on the results we obtained.

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  • 17 June 2020

    This article [1] the authors.

    The work presented in this article was previously published in chinese [2].

    All authors agree to this retraction.


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Correspondence to Teqi Dai.

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Foundation item: Under the auspices of Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 40635026)

This article has been retracted at the request of the authors. The work presented in this article was previously published in Chinese. All authors agree to this retraction.

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Dai, T., Jin, F. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Spatial interaction and network structure evolvement of cities in terms of China’s rail passenger flows. Chin. Geogr. Sci. 18, 206–213 (2008).

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  • rail passenger flows
  • urban agglomerations
  • spatial interaction
  • gravity model
  • distance decay