Journal of Cancer Survivorship

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 509–518 | Cite as

Initial evaluation of the validity and reliability of the culturally adapted Spanish CaSUN (S-CaSUN)

  • Dinorah Martinez Tyson
  • Patricia Medina-Ramirez
  • Coralia Vázquez-Otero
  • Clement K. Gwede
  • Margarita Bobonis Babilonia
  • Susan C. McMillan



There is a dearth of knowledge and limited research on the needs of Hispanic male cancer survivors (HMCSs). There is a clear need for the development of culturally and linguistically adapted needs assessment tools that are valid and reliable for use among the growing HMCS population. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe the field testing and psychometric evaluation of the translated and culturally adapted Spanish Cancer Survivor Unmet Needs Measure (S-CaSUN).


Hispanic male cancer survivors (n = 84) completed the Spanish CaSUN (S-CaSUN), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General Population (FACT-GP). Construct validity of the S-CaSUN was assessed by correlation analysis among aforesaid measures. A test-retest procedure with 2-week delay was used to examine reproducibility with a participant subsample (n = 50). Cronbach’s alpha was computed to assess internal consistency of the S-CaSUN.


Construct validity of the S-CaSUN was estimated by moderate correlation with the HADS anxiety (r = 0.55, P < 0.001) and depression scales (r = 0.60, P < 0.001) and the FACT-GP (r = − 0.62, P < 0.001). The test-retest correlation coefficient for the S-CaSUN was 0.78. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.96. Field testing yielded a mean S-CaSUN score of 38.3 (SD = 26.2); all needs and positive change items were endorsed.


Findings from field testing and preliminary psychometric evaluation of the S-CaSUN provide initial evidence of validity and reliability of the measure and highlight the importance of going beyond translation when adapting measures to take culture, literacy, and language into consideration.

Implications for Cancer Survivors

Reliable, culturally, and linguistically valid instruments facilitate identification of unique unmet needs of Hispanic cancer survivors that, in turn, can be addressed with evidence-based interventions. As cancer centers continue to develop survivorship programs, the S-CaSUN may be useful for a growing group of cancer survivors.


Supportive care Hispanic/Latino Psychosocial oncology Unmet needs CaSUN Men 



This research was supported by National Institutes of Health Grant R03CA168403 awarded to Dinorah Martinez Tyson. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. The authors would like to thank the cancer survivors who participated in this study and the members of our community advisory board. We are also grateful to Ms. Melody Chavez for her editorial assistance. We would also like to acknowledge the following organizations and people for their invaluable support: LUNA, Inc.; Hispanic Health Initiatives; Creando Conciencia por Reina; Dr. Pow-Sang; Jim West; Dr. Cathy Meade; Dr. Paul Jacobsen; the Florida Prevention Research Center; and the Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest to disclose.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Community and Family HealthUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  2. 2.Health Outcomes and BehaviorMoffitt Cancer Center and Research InstituteTampaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Oncologic SciencesMorsani College of MedicineTampaUSA
  4. 4.Psychiatry, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research InstituteTampaUSA
  5. 5.College of NursingUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA

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