Customer engagement in social media: a framework and meta-analysis

Abstract

This research examines customer engagement in social media (CESM) using a meta-analytic model of 814 effect sizes across 97 studies involving 161,059 respondents. Findings reveal that customer engagement is driven by satisfaction, positive emotions, and trust, but not by commitment. Satisfaction is a stronger predictor of customer engagement in high (vs. low) convenience, B2B (vs. B2C), and Twitter (vs. Facebook and Blogs). Twitter appears twice as likely as other social media platforms to improve customer engagement via satisfaction and positive emotions. Customer engagement is also found to have substantial value for companies, directly impacting firm performance, behavioral intention, and word-of-mouth. Moreover, hedonic consumption yields nearly three times stronger customer engagement to firm performance effects vis-à-vis utilitarian consumption. However, contrary to conventional managerial wisdom, word-of-mouth does not improve firm performance nor does it mediate customer engagement effects on firm performance. Contributions to customer engagement theory, including an embellishment of the customer engagement mechanics definition, and practical implications for managers are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Notes

  1. 1.

    We did examine an alternative model allowing direct effects of trust and commitment on firm performance, behavioral intention and WOM. The chi-square difference between the CESM model and the alternative is 19.9 with 4 df (p = .00052). The CFI suggests a slight improvement in fit to 0.98 versus 0.97. The improvement in fit is due largely due to a positive, significant, and nontrivial trust-performance relationship. More importantly, the addition of the direct paths does not affect the parameter estimates to any large degree as the correlation between the CESM estimates and the alternative model is r = 0.922. The parameter stability further provides evidence of a lack of bias due to interpretational confounding.

References

  1. Aggarwal, R., Gopal, R., Gupta, A., & Singh, H. (2012). Putting money where the mouths are: The relation between venture financing and electronic word-of-mouth. Information Systems Research, 23(3-part-2), 976-992.

  2. Agrawal, N., Menon, G., & Aaker, J. L. (2007). Getting emotional about health. Journal of Marketing Research, 44(1), 100–113.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Algesheimer, R., Dholakia, U. M., & Herrmann, A. (2005). The social influence of brand community: Evidence from European car clubs. Journal of Marketing, 69(3), 19–34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Ashley, C., & Tuten, T. (2015). Creative strategies in social media marketing: An exploratory study of branded social content and consumer engagement. Psychology & Marketing, 32(1), 15–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Babić-Rosario, A., Sotgiu, F., De Valck, K., & Bijmolt, T. H. (2016). The effect of electronic word of mouth on sales: A meta-analytic review of platform, product, and metric factors. Journal of Marketing Research, 53(3), 297–318.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Babin, B. J., Darden, W. R., & Griffin, M. (1994). Work and/or fun: Measuring hedonic and utilitarian shopping value. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4), 644–656.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Badrinarayanan, V. A., Sierra, J. J., & Martin, K. M. (2015). A dual identification framework of online multiplayer video games: The case of massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). Journal of Business Research, 68(5), 1045–1052.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bagozzi, R. P., Gopinath, M., & Nyer, P. U. (1999). The role of emotions in marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27, 184–206.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Baldus, B. J., Voorhees, C., & Calantone, R. (2015). Online brand community engagement: Scale development and validation. Journal of Business Research, 68(5), 978–985.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Beckers, S. F. M., van Doorn, J., & Verhoef, P. C. (2018). Good, better, engaged? The effect of company-initiated customer engagement behavior on shareholder value. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 46(3), 366–383.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bijmolt, T. H. A., Leeflang, P. S. H., Block, F., Eisenbeiss, M., Hardie, B. G. S., Lemmens, A., & Saffert, P. (2010). Analytics for customer engagement. Journal of Service Research, 13(3), 341–356.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P., & Rothstein, H. R. (2019). Introduction to meta-analysis. UK: John Wiley & Sons.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Bowden, J. L. H. (2009a). The process of customer engagement: A conceptual framework. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 17(1), 63–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Bowden, J. L. H. (2009b). Customer engagement: A framework for assessing customer-brand relationships: The case of the restaurant industry. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 18(6), 574–596.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Brodie, R. J., Hollebeek, L. D., Jurić, B., & Ilić, A. (2011). Customer engagement: Conceptual domain, fundamental propositions, and implications for research. Journal of Service Research, 14(3), 252–271.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Brodie, R. J., Ilic, A., Juric, B., & Hollebeek, L. (2013). Consumer engagement in a virtual brand community: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Business Research, 66(1), 105–114.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Brown, L. G. (1990). Convenience in services marketing. Journal of Services Marketing, 4(1), 53–59.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Calder, B. J., Malthouse, E. C., & Schaedel, U. (2009). An experimental study of the relationship between online engagement and advertising effectiveness. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 23(4), 321–331.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Cheung, M. W. (2015). Meta analysis: A structural equation modeling approach. Wiley.

  20. Cheung, M. W., & Chan, W. (2005). Meta-analytic structural equation modeling: A two-stage approach. Psychological Methods, 10(1), 40–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Cheung, C. M., Shen, X. L., Lee, Z. W., & Chan, T. K. (2015). Promoting sales of online games through customer engagement. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 14(4), 241–250.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Chu, S. C., & Kim, Y. (2011). Determinants of consumer engagement in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in social networking sites. International Journal of Advertising, 30(1), 47–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Claffey, E., & Brady, M. (2017). Examining consumers’ motivations to engage in firm-hosted virtual communities. Psychology & Marketing, 34(4), 356–375.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Dessart, L., Veloutsou, C., & Morgan-Thomas, A. (2015). Consumer engagement in online brand communities: A social media perspective. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 24(1), 28–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Dutot, V., & Mosconi, E. (2016). Understanding factors of disengagement within a virtual community: An exploratory study. Journal of Decision Systems, 25(3), 227–243.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Eisend, M. (2017). The third-person effect in advertising: A meta-analysis. Journal of Advertising, 46(3), 377–394.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Fischer, E., & Reuber, A. R. (2011). Social interaction via new social media:(how) can interactions on twitter affect effectual thinking and behavior? Journal of Business Venturing, 26(1), 1–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Forbes. (2015). How To Sell Intangibles. Retrieved July 1st, 2019 from https://www.forbes.com/sites/larrymyler/2015/08/15/how-to-sell-intangibles/#572772477a0a

  29. Forbes. (2018a). Want to Improve Your Social Media Strategy? Avoid These 14 Faux Pas. Retrieved July 1st, 2019 from https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesagencycouncil/2018/04/27/want-to-improve-your-social-media-strategy-avoid-these-14-faux-pas/#4178216574d6

  30. Forbes. (2018b). Social Media is Increasing Brand Engagement and Sales. Retrieved July 1st, 2019 from https://www.forbes.com/sites/tjmccue/2018/06/26/social-media-is-increasing-brand-engagement-and-sales/#35a844717cb3

  31. Forbes. (2018c). Facebook Engagement Sharply Drops 50% Over Last 18 Months. Retrieved July 1st, 2019 https://www.forbes.com/sites/ryanerskine/2018/08/13/study-facebook-engagement-sharply-drops-50-over-last-18-months/#58a6828b94e8

  32. Forbes (2019). Creating a Marketing Budget for 2020. Retrieved April 1st, 2020 from https://www.forbes.com/sites/theyec/2019/12/19/creating-a-marketing-budget-for-2020/

  33. Forbes (2020a). Why 2020 is a Critical Global Tipping Point for Social Media. Retrieved April 1st, 2020 from https://www.forbes.com/sites/johnkoetsier/2020/02/18/why-2020-is-a-critical-global-tipping-point-for-social-media/

  34. Forbes (2020b). Top Ten Results from the February 2020 CMO Survey. Retrieved April 1st, 2020 from https://www.forbes.com/sites/christinemoorman/2020/02/26/top-ten-results-from-the-february-2020-cmo-survey/

  35. Geyskens, I., Steenkamp, J. B. E., & Kumar, N. (1999). A meta-analysis of satisfaction in marketing channel relationships. Journal of Marketing Research, 36(2), 223–238.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Geyskens, I., Krishnan, R., Steenkamp, J. B. E., & Cunha, P. V. (2009). A review and evaluation of meta-analysis practices in management research. Journal of Management, 35(2), 393–419.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Grewal, D., Puccenelli, N., & Monroe, K. B. (2018). Meta-analysis: Integrating accumulated knowledge. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 46, 9–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Gummerus, J., Liljander, V., Weman, E., & Pihlström, M. (2012). Customer engagement in a Facebook brand community. Management Research Review, 35(9), 857–877.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Gustafsson, A., Johnson, M. D., & Roos, I. (2005). The effects of customer satisfaction, relationship commitment dimensions, and triggers on customer retention. Journal of Marketing, 69(4), 210–218.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Hagtvedt, H., & Patrick, V. M. (2009). The broad embrace of luxury: Hedonic potential as a driver of brand extendibility. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19(4), 608–618.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Hair Jr., J. F., Babin, B. J., & Krey, N. (2017). Covariance-based structural equation modeling in the journal of advertising: Review and recommendations. Journal of Advertising, 46(1), 163–177.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Halaszovich, T., & Nel, J. (2017). Customer–brand engagement and Facebook fan-page “like”-intention. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 26(2), 120–134.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Han, D., Duhachek, A., & Agrawal, N. (2014). Emotions shape decisions through construal level: The case of guilt and shame. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(4), 1047–1064.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Harmeling, C. M., Moffett, J. W., Arnold, M. J., & Carlson, B. D. (2017). Toward a theory of customer engagement marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45(3), 312–335.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Harvard Business Review. (2018). The Basic Social Media Mistakes Companies Still Make. Retrieved July 1st, 2018 from https://hbr.org/2018/01/the-basic-social-media-mistakes-companies-still-make

  46. Harvard Business Review. (2019). Using Social Media to Connect With Your Most Loyal Customers. Retrieved January 15th, 2020 from https://hbr.org/2019/12/using-social-media-to-connect-with-your-most-loyal-customers

  47. Harvard Business Review. (2020). Four Questions to Boost Your Social Media Marketing. Retrieved January 15th, 2020 from https://hbr.org/2020/01/4-questions-to-boost-your-social-media-marketing

  48. Hauk, N., Hüffmeier, J., & Krumm, S. (2018). Ready to be a silver surfer? A meta-analysis on the relationship between chronological age and technology acceptance. Computers in Human Behavior, 84, 304–319.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Hennig-Thurau, T., Qwinner, P. K., Walsh, G., & Gremler, D. D. (2004). Electronic word-of-mouth via consumer-opinion platforms: What motivates consumers to articulate themselves on the internet? Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18, 38–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Higgins, E. T., & Scholer, A. A. (2009). Engaging the consumer: The science and art of the value creation process. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19(2), 100–114.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Hirschman, E. C., & Holbrook, M. B. (1982). Hedonic consumption: Emerging concepts, methods and propositions. Journal of Marketing, 46, 92–101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Hollebeek, L. (2011). Exploring customer brand engagement: Definition and themes. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 19(7), 555–573.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Hollebeek, L. D., Glynn, M. S., & Brodie, R. J. (2014). Consumer brand engagement in social media: Conceptualization, scale development and validation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 28(2), 149–165.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Hollebeek, L. D., Srivastava, R. K., & Chen, T. (2016). SD logic–informed customer engagement: Integrative framework, revised fundamental propositions, and application to CRM. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 47, 1–25.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Hopp, T., & Gallicano, T. D. (2016). Development and test of a multidimensional scale of blog engagement. Journal of Public Relations Research, 28(3–4), 127–145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (2004). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings. SAGE Publications.

  58. Jak, S. (2015). Meta-analytic structural equation modelling. Dordrecht, Neth: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Junco, R., Elavsky, C. M., & Heiberger, G. (2013). Putting twitter to the test: Assessing outcomes for student collaboration, engagement and success. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(2), 273–287.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Kim, Y., & Peterson, R. A. (2017). A meta-analysis of online trust relationships in E-commerce. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 38, 44–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Kumar, V. (2013). Profitable customer engagement - concept. Metrics and Strategies: SAGE Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Kumar, V., & Pansari, A. (2015). Measuring the benefits of employee engagement. MIT Sloan Management Review, 56(4), 67.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Kumar, V., Aksoy, L., Donkers, B., Venkatesan, R., Wiesel, T., & Tillmanns, S. (2010). Undervalued or overvalued customers: Capturing total customer engagement value. Journal of Service Research, 13(3), 297–310.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Kumar, V., Rajan, B., Gupta, S., & Pozza, I. D. (2019). Customer engagement in service. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 47(1), 138–160.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Labrecque, L. I. (2014). Fostering consumer–brand relationships in social media environments: The role of Parasocial interaction. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 28, 134–148.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Labroo, A., & Patrick, V. M. (2009). Why happiness helps you see the big picture. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(5), 800–809.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis (Vol. 49). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Mano, H., & Oliver, R. L. (1993). Assessing the dimensionality and structure of the consumption experience: Evaluation, feeling, and satisfaction. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(3), 451–466.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6(7), e1000097.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Mollen, A., & Wilson, H. (2010). Engagement, telepresence, and interactivity in online consumer experience: Reconciling scholastic and managerial perspectives. Journal of Business Research, 63(9), 919–925.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Moorman, C., Deshpande, R., & Zaltman, G. (1993). Factors affecting trust in market research relationships. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 81–101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Morgan, N. A., & Rego, L. L. (2006). The value of different customer satisfaction and loyalty metrics in predicting business performance. Marketing Science, 25(5), 426–439.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Neale, M. C., Hunter, M. D., Pritikin, J. N., Zahery, M., Brick, T. R., Kirkpatrick, R. M., Estabrook, R., Bates, T. C., Maes, H. H., & Boker, S. M. (2016). OpenMx 2.0: Extended structural equation and statistical modeling. Psychometrika, 81(2), 535–549.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Netbase Social Analytics. (2020). Social Media Rankings by Industry. Retrieved January 15th, 2020 from https://www.netbase.com/social-media-rankings/

  76. Obilo, O. O., Chefor, E., & Saleh, A. (2020). Revisiting the consumer brand engagement concept. Journal of Business Research, In Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.12.023.

  77. Pansari, A., & Kumar, V. (2017). Customer engagement: The construct, antecedents, and consequences. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45(3), 294–311.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Park, C. W., & MacInnis, D. J. (2006). What's in and what's out: Questions on the boundaries of the attitude construct. Journal of Consumer Research, 33(1), 16–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Paruthi, M., & Kaur, H. (2017). Scale development and validation for measuring online engagement. Journal of Internet Commerce, 16(2), 127–147.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Peterson, R. A., & Brown, S. P. (2005). On the use of beta coefficients in meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(1), 175–181.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Rietveld, R., van Dolen, W., Mazloom, M., & Worring, M. (2020). What you feel, is what you like influence of message appeals on customer engagement on Instagram. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 49, 20–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Rosenblad, A. (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis by Michael Borenstein, Larry V. Hedges, Julian PT Higgins. Hannah R. Rothstein. International Statistical Review, 77(3), 478–479.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Rosenthal, R. (1979). The file drawer problem and tolerance for null results. Psychological Bulletin, 86(3), 638–642.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Rosenthal, R., & DiMatteo, M. R. (2001). Meta-analysis: Recent developments in quantitative methods for literature reviews. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 59–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Rust, R. T., & Cooil, B. (1994). Reliability measures for qualitative data: Theory and implications. Journal of Marketing Research, 31(1), 1–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Santini, F., Ladeira, W. J., Sampaio, C. H., & Pinto, D. C. (2018). The brand experience extended model: A meta-analysis. Journal of Brand Management, 25, 519–535.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. See-To, E. W., & Ho, K. K. (2014). Value co-creation and purchase intention in social network sites: The role of electronic word-of-mouth and trust–a theoretical analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 182–189.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Simon, F., & Tossan, V. (2018). Does brand-consumer social sharing matter? A relational framework of customer engagement to brand-hosted social media. Journal of Business Research, 85, 175–184.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Smith, J. B., & Colgate, M. (2007). Customer value creation: A practical framework. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 15(1), 7–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Sprott, D., Czellar, S., & Spangenberg, E. (2009). The importance of a general measure of brand engagement on market behavior: Development and validation of a scale. Journal of Marketing Research, 46(1), 92–104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Thomson, M., MacInnis, D. J., & Whan Park, C. (2005). The ties that bind: Measuring the strength of consumers’ emotional attachments to brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(1), 77–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Trusov, M., Bucklin, R. E., & Pauwels, K. (2009). Effects of word-of-mouth versus traditional marketing: Findings from an internet social networking site. Journal of Marketing, 73(5), 90–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Tsai, H. T., Huang, H. C., & Chiu, Y. L. (2012). Brand community participation in Taiwan: Examining the roles of individual-, group-, and relationship-level antecedents. Journal of Business Research, 65(5), 676–684.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Van Doorn, J., Lemon, K. N., Mittal, V., Nass, S., Pick, D., Pirner, P., & Verhoef, P. C. (2010). Customer engagement behavior: Theoretical foundations and research directions. Journal of Service Research, 13(3), 253–266.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Van Lange, P. A. M., Rusbult, C. E., Drigotas, S. M., & Arriaga, X. B. (1997). Willingness to sacrifice in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(6), 1373–1395.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Venkatesan, R. (2017). Executing on a customer engagement strategy. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 45(3), 289–293.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Verhoef, P. C., Franses, P. H., & Hoekstra, J. C. (2002). The effect of relational constructs on customer referrals and number of services purchased from a multiservice provider: Does age of relationship matter? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30(3), 202–216.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Verhoef, P. C., Reinartz, W. J., & Krafft, M. (2010). Customer engagement as a new perspective in customer management. Journal of Service Research, 13(3), 247–252.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Viechtbauer, W. (2010). Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. Journal of Statistical Software, 36, 1–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Villanueva, J., Yoo, S., & Hanssens, D. M. (2008). The impact of marketing-induced versus word-of-mouth customer acquisition on customer equity growth. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(1), 48–59.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Vivek, S. D., Beatty, S. E., & Morgan, R. M. (2012). Customer engagement: Exploring customer relationships beyond purchase. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 20(2), 122–146.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Wang, Z., & Kim, H. G. (2017). Can social media marketing improve customer relationship capabilities and firm performance? Dynamic capability perspective. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 39, 15–26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Wong, H. Y., & Merrilees, B. (2015). An empirical study of the antecedents and consequences of brand engagement. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 33(4), 575–591.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Yadav, M. S., & Pavlou, P. A. (2014). Marketing in computer-mediated environments: Research synthesis and new directions. Journal of Marketing, 78(1), 20–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Zaichkowsky, J. L. (1985). Measuring the involvement construct. Journal of Consumer Research, 12(3), 341–352.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  106. Zboja, J. J., & Voorhees, C. M. (2006). The impact of brand trust and satisfaction on retailer repurchase intentions. Journal of Services Marketing, 20(6), 381–390.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Zeithaml, V. A., Parasuraman, A., & Berry, L. L. (1985). Problems and strategies in services marketing. Journal of Marketing, 49(2), 33–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Zenith Media (2020). Social media overtakes print to become the third-largest advertising channel. Retrieved April 1st, 2020 from https://www.zenithmedia.com/social-media-overtakes-print-to-become-the-third-largest-advertising-channel/

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Diego Costa Pinto.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

John Hulland and Mark Houston served as editors for this article.

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 59 kb)

Appendix A

Appendix A

Table 6 Customer engagement definitions and measurements

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

de Oliveira Santini, F., Ladeira, W.J., Pinto, D. et al. Customer engagement in social media: a framework and meta-analysis. J. of the Acad. Mark. Sci. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-020-00731-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Customer engagement
  • Firm performance
  • Meta-analysis
  • Online consumer behavior
  • Social media