Table 3 Results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis comparing ED patients without COVID-19 (n = 594), patients with mild to moderate presentation of COVID-19 (n = 498), and patients with critical presentation (n = 96)

From: Electrolyte imbalance in COVID-19 patients admitted to the Emergency Department: a case–control study

  Multivariate logistic regression, controls versus cases with mild to moderate presentation, Adjusted OR, (95% CI) P value Multivariate logistic regression, controls versus cases with critical presentation, adjusted OR, (95% CI) P value
Comorbidities     
 Hypertension 1.17 (0.87–1.58) 0.297 1.06 (0.57–1.94) 0.85
 Diabetes 1.15 (0.84–1.56) 0.392 1.61 (0.87–2.90) 0.12
 Chronic kidney disease 1.01 (0.65–1.55) 0.978 0.64 (0.22–1.64) 0.37
 Congestive heart failure 0.95 (0.66–1.36) 0.767 0.71 (0.26–1.80) 0.49
 Liver cirrhosis 0.53 (0.20–1.20) 0.152 0.00 (0.00–4213.52) 0.98
Medication     
 Potassium-sparing diuretics 1.19 (0.66–2.10) 0.560 2.03 (0.68–5.23) 0.168
 Other diuretics 0.78 (0.55–1.11) 0.165 2.98 (0.91–8.71) 0.054
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 0.89 (0.46–1.61) 0.705 1.03 (0.48–2.12) 0.933
 Angiotensin receptor blockers 1.18 (0.79–1.74) 0.418 2.23 (1.04–4.73) 0.037
 Corticosteroids 1.12 (0.67–1.84) 0.659 1.29 (0.42–3.47) 0.64
 Initial clinical findings     
 Diarrhea 3.31 (2.48–4.43)  < 0.001 5.08 (2.68–9.59)  < 0.001
 Vomiting 0.43 (0.28–0.63)  < 0.001 0.30 (0.13–0.64) 0.003
Initial laboratory tests     
 Hyponatremia 1.63 (1.10–2.39) 0.014 2.80 (1.39–5.58) 0.004
 Hypokalemia 1.67 (1.18–2.34) 0.003 1.97 (0.96–3.88) 0.056
 Hypochloremia 0.96 (0.61–1.51) 0.875 1.70 (0.77–3.66) 0.180
  1. OR odds ratios, 95% CI 95% confidence interval