Table 2 Results of the logistic regression analysis comparing ED patients with COVID-19 and ED patients without COVID-19. Odds ratios for COVID-19 associated with drugs and electrolyte disturbance, unadjusted odds ratios (univariate logistic regression) and adjusted odds ratios (multivariate logistic regression)

From: Electrolyte imbalance in COVID-19 patients admitted to the Emergency Department: a case–control study

  Unadjusted OR for COVID-19
OR (95% CI)
P value Adjusted OR for COVID-19, OR (95% CI) P value
Comorbidities     
 Hypertension 1.10 (0.87–1.39) 0.43 1.01 (0.73–1.39) 0.957
 Diabetes 1.22 (0.91–1.63) 0.19 1.25 (0.89–1.76) 0.195
 Chronic kidney disease 0.85 (0.57–1.26) 0.41 0.85 (0.52–1.37) 0.497
 Congestive heart failure 1.00 (0.72–1.38) 0.98 1.21 (0.80–1.84) 0.370
 Liver cirrhosis 0.72 (0.28–1.79) 0.49 0.50 (0.17–1.39) 0.194
Medication     
 Potassium-sparing diuretics 1.35 (0.81–2.20) 0.24 1.30 (0.75–2.23) 0.34
 Other diuretics 1.45 (0.80–2.68) 0.22 1.71 (0.89–3.34) 0.11
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 0.76 (0.54–1.07) 0.12 0.78 (0.53–1.16) 0.22
 Angiotensin receptor blockers 1.49 (1.04–2.13) 0.03 1.50 (0.97–2.31) 0.07
 Corticosteroids 1.01 (0.60–1.69) 0.97 1.32 (0.75–2.35) 0.34
Initial clinical findings     
 Diarrhea 4.19 (2.97–6.02)  < 0.001 5.04 (3.47–7.46)  < 0.001
 Vomiting 0.57 (0.39–0.81) 0.002 0.34 (0.22–0.51)  < 0.001
Initial laboratory tests     
 Hyponatremia 1.82 (1.33–2.51)  < 0.001 1.89 (1.24–2.89) 0.003
 Hypokalemia 1.65 (1.16–2.35) 0.005 1.76 (1.20–2.60) 0.004
 Hypochloremia 1.55 (1.09–2.22) 0.016 1.09 (0.68–1.75) 0.73
  1. OR odds ratios, 95% CI 95% confidence interval