Table 1 Demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings of patients with COVID-19 (Case patients) and matched controls

From: Electrolyte imbalance in COVID-19 patients admitted to the Emergency Department: a case–control study

  All adults (N = 1188) Case patients (n = 594) Controls (n = 594)
Age, median (IQR), year 65 (51.5–76) 65 (52–76) 65 (51–76)
Sex, n (%, 95% CI)    
 Male 663 (55.8, 52.9–58.6) 333 (56.0, 51.9–60.0) 330 (55.6, 51.4–59.6)
 Female 524 (44.2, 41.3–47.0) 261 (44.0, 39.9–48.0) 263 (44.3, 40.2–48.4)
Comorbidities, n (%, 95% CI)    
 Hypertension 470 (39.6, 36.8–42.4) 242 (40.7, 36.7–44.8) 228 (38.4, 34.4–42.4)
 Diabetes 222 (18.7, 16.5–21.0) 120 (20.2, 17.0–23.6) 102 (17.1, 14.2–20.5)
 Chronic kidney disease 110 (9.3, 7.7–11.0) 51 (8.6, 6.5–11.1) 59 (9.9, 7.6–12.6)
 Congestive heart failure 168 (14.1, 12.2–16.2) 84 (14.1, 11.4–17.2) 170 (14.3, 25.0–32.4)
 Liver cirrhosis 19 (1.6, 0.1–2.4) 8 (1.3, 0.1–2.6) 11 (1.9, 1.0–3.2)
Medication, n (%, 95% CI)    
 Potassium-sparing diuretics 46 (3.9, 2.8–5.1) 27 (4.5, 3.0–6.5) 19 (3.2, 1.9–4.9)
 Other diuretics 203 (17.1, 14.9–19.3) 95 (16.0, 13.1–19.1) 108 (18.2, 15.1–21.5)
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 159 (13.4, 11.5–15.4) 70 (11.8, 9.3–14.6) 89 (15.0, 12.2–18.1)
 Angiotensin receptor blockers 142 (12.0, 10.2–13.9) 83 (14.0, 11.3–17.0) 59 (10.0, 7.6–12.6)
 Corticosteroids 62 (5.2, 4.0–6.6) 31 (5.2, 3.6–7.3) 31 (5.2, 3.6–7.3)
Initial clinical findings, n (%, 95% CI)    
 Diarrhea 202 (17.0, 14.9–19.2) 156 (26.3, 22.8–30.0) 46 (7.7, 5.7–10.2)
 Vomiting 137 (10.6, 9.8–13.5) 52 (8.7, 6.6–11.3) 85 (14.3, 11.6–17.4)
Initial laboratory tests    
 Sodium, mmol/l; median (IQR) 139 (136–141) 138 (135–141) 139 (137 -141)
 Hyponatremia, n (%, 95% CI) 194 (16.3, 14.3–18.6) 121 (20.4, 17.2–23.8) 73 (12.3, 9.7–15.2)
 Potassium, mmol/l; median (IQR) 4.0 (3.7–4.3) 3.9 (3.6–4.3) 4.0 (3.75–4.3)
 Hypokalemia, n (%, 95% CI) 148 (12.5, 10.6–14.5) 90 (15.1, 12.4–18.3) 58 (9.8, 7.4–12.4)
 Chloride, mmol/l; median (IQR) 101 (98–104) 100 (97–104) 102 (99–105)
 Hypochloremia, n (%, 95% CI) 141 (11.9, 10.0–13.8) 84 (14.1, 11.4–17.2) 57 (9.6, 6.9–11.7)
 Urea, mmol/l; median (IQR) 5.6 (4.2–8.1) 5.6 (4.0–8.1) 5.6 (4.3–8.0)
 Creatinine, µmol/l; median (IQR) 78.2 (64–101) 79 (65–102) 78 (64–99.5)
  1. 95% CI 95% interval confidence, IQR interquartile