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Internal and Emergency Medicine

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 325–331 | Cite as

Sarcoidosis: a review for the internist

  • Elena Bargagli
  • Antje Prasse
IM - REVIEW

Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous lung disease of unknown origin affecting people of any age, mainly young adults. The disease is extremely heterogeneous with an unpredictable clinical course. Different phenotypes have been identified: an acute syndrome can be distinguished from subacute and chronic variants. About 20% of patients are chronically progressive and may develop lung fibrosis. Sarcoidosis usually involves the lungs and thoracic lymph nodes, although the skin, eyes, bones, liver, spleen, heart, upper respiratory tract and nervous system can also be affected. No reliable indicators of clinical outcome are available, and there is no single serological biomarker with demonstrated unequivocal diagnostic and prognostic value. Diagnosis requires histological confirmation although a presumptive diagnosis may be acceptable in special conditions. This review examines the diagnostic approach to sarcoidosis involving a multidisciplinary team of specialists in which the internist has the task of identifying all pulmonary and extrapulmonary localizations of the disease and of managing complications and comorbidities.

Keywords

Sarcoidosis Diagnosis Clinical manifestations Internal medicine 

Abbreviations

HRCT

High-resolution computed tomography

ILD

Interstitial lung diseases

LFT

Lung function tests

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Statement of human and animal rights

This research does not involve humans or animals. It is a revision of the literature. The ethical standards have been respected.

Informed consent

For this type of study formal consent was not required therefore no informed consent was needed.

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Copyright information

© SIMI 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical SciencesUniversity Hospital Careggi (AOUC)FlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Medizinische Hochschule HannoverHannoverGermany

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