Influence of silicon on spring wheat seedlings under salt stress

  • U. Sienkiewicz-Cholewa
  • J. Sumisławska
  • E. Sacała
  • M. Dziągwa-Becker
  • R. Kieloch
Original Article


The aim of the study was to examine the effect of silicon on spring wheat subjected to salt stress. The experiment was conducted in hydroponic conditions on 10-day old wheat seedlings. Salt stress was induced by sodium chloride at the concentration of 70 and 100 mM added to nutrient medium. Silicon (H4SiO4) at the doses of 1.0 and 1.5 mM significantly increased the shoots and roots weight of wheat seedlings and the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b, as well as carotenoids) in leaves. It reduced a detrimental effect of salt stress and restricted peroxidation of membrane lipids. We also observed a greater accumulation of nitrates and the decrease in malondialdehyde concentration in plant tissues as a result of silicon addition. Under osmotic stress, silicon did not change the content of sugars in wheat shoots and roots. Silicon did not clearly affect proline content. In general, the obtained results point out that silicon can be used for the alleviation of adverse effect of salinity on plants status.


Triticum aestivum L. Salinity Silicic acid Photosynthetic pigments Soluble sugars Nitrates Malondialdehyde Proline 


  1. Abdel Latef AA, Tran L-SP (2016) Impacts of priming with silicon on the growth and tolerance of maize plants to alkaline stress. Front Plant Sci 7:243CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Aghabary ZhuK, Shi QH (2004) Influence of silicon supply on chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzyme activities in tomato under salt stress. J Plant Nutr 27:2101–2115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cataldo DA, Haroon M, Schrader LE, Youngs VL (1975) Rapid colorimetric determination of nitrate in plant tissue by nitration of salicylic acid. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 6:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Das P, Seal P, Biswas AK (2016) Regulation of growth antioxidants and sugar metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings by NaCl and its reversal by silicon. Am J Plant Sci 7:623–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dziągwa-Becker M, Ramos JMM, Topolski J, Oleszek W (2015) Determination of free amino acids in plants by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Anal Methods 7:7574–7580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Elkhatib HA, Elkhatib EA, Allah AMK, El-SharkawyA M (2004) Yield response of salt stressed potato to potassium fertilization; a preliminary mathematical model. J Plant Nutr 27:111–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. El-Tayeb MA (2005) Response of barley grains to the interactive effect of salinity and salicylic acid salinity. Plant Growth Regulat 45:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Epstein E (1999) Silicon. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:641–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Flowers TJ (2004) Improving crop salt tolerance. J Exp Bot 55:307–319CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gao X, Zou Ch, Wang L, Zhang F (2004) Silicon improves water use efficiency in maize plants. J Plant Nutr 27:1457–1470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gao X, Zou Ch, Wang L, Zhang F (2006) Silicon decreases transpiration rate and conductance from stomata of maize plants. J Plant Nutr 29:1637–1647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gassami-Golezani K, Lafti R, Najafi N (2015) Some physiological responses of mungbean to salicylic acid and silicon under salt stress. Adv Biores 6:7–13Google Scholar
  13. Griffin JJ, Ranney T, Pharr DM (2004) Heat and drought influence photosynthesis, water relations and soluble carbohydrates of two ecotypes of redbud (Cercis Canadensis). J Am Soc Hortic Sci 129:497–502Google Scholar
  14. Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA, Zhu J-K, Bohnert HJ (2000) Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 551:463–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hattori T, Sonobe K, Inanaga S, An P, Tsuji W, Araki H, Eneji AE, Morita S (2007) Short term stomatal responses to light intensity changes and osmotic stress in sorghum seedlings raised with and without silicon. Environ Exp Bot 60:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heath RL, Packer L (1968) Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplasts. I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 125:189–198CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Henriet C, Draye X, Oppitz L, Swennen R, Delvaux B (2006) Effects, distribution and uptake of silicon in banana (Musa spp.) under controlled conditions. Plant Soil 287:359–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jamil A, Riaz S, Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2011) Gene expression profiling of plants under salt stress. Crit Rev Plant Sci 30:435–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaya C, Tuna L, Hoggs D (2006) Effect of silicon on plant growth and mineral nutrition of maize grown under water-stress conditions. J Plant Nutr 29:1469–1480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liang Y (1998) Effects of Si on leaf ultrastructure, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity in barley under salt stress. Podosphere 8:289–296Google Scholar
  21. Liang Y (1999) Effects of silicon on enzyme activity and sodium, potassium and calcium concentration in barley under salt stress. Plant Soil 209:217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liang Y, Zhang W, Chen Q, Liu Y, Ding R (2006) Effect of exogenous silicon (Si) on H+ -ATPase activity, phospholipids and fluidity of plasma membrane in leaves of salt-stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Environ Exp Bot 57:212–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lichtenthaler HK (1987) Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods Enzymol 148:350–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ma JF, Yamayi N (2006) Silicon uptake and accumulation in higher plants. Trends Plant Sci 11:392–397CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Mahmood S, Daur I, Al-Solaimani SG, Ahmad S, Madkour MH, Yasir M, Hirt H, Ali S, Ali Z (2016) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and silicon synergistically enhance salinity tolerance of mung been. Front Plant Sci 7:876PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Nelson N (1944) A photometric adaptation of the Somogyi method for the determination of glucose. J Biol Chem 153:375–380Google Scholar
  27. Qian Q, Zai W, Zhu Z, Yu J (2006) Effects of exogenous silicon on active oxygen scavenging systems in chloroplasts of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings under salt stress. J Plant Physiol Mol Biol 32:107–112Google Scholar
  28. Qin L, Kang W, Qi Y, Zhang Z, Wang N (2016) The influence of silicon application on growth and photosynthesis response of salt stressed grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.). Acta Physiol Plant 38:68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ramachandra Reddy A, Chaitanya KV, Vivekanandan M (2004) Drought-induced responses of photosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism in higher plants. J Plant Physiol 161:1198–1202Google Scholar
  30. Sacała E (2009) Role of silicon in plant resistance to water stress. J Elementol 14:619–630Google Scholar
  31. Sacała E (2017) The influence of increasing doses of silicon on maize seedlings grown under salt stress. J Plant Nutr 40:819–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sacała E, Durbajło W (2012) The effect of sodium silicate on maize growing under stress condition. Przemysł Chemiczny 91:949–951 (In Polish) Google Scholar
  33. Shen B, Jensen RG, Bohnert HJ (1997) Increased resistance to oxidative stress in transgenic plants by targeting mannitol biosynthesis to chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 113:1177–1183CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Thomas H (1997) Drought resistance in plants. In: Basra AS, Basra RK (eds) Mechanisms of environmental stress resistance in plants. Harwood Academic Publ., Netherlands. pp 1–42Google Scholar
  35. Torabi F, Majd A, Euteshari S (2015) The effect of silicon on alleviation of salt stress in borage (Borago officinalis L.). Soil Sci Plant Nutr 6:788–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tuna AL, Kaya C, Higgs D, Murillo-Amador B, Aydemir S, Girgin AR (2008) Silicon improves salinity tolerance in wheat plants. Environ Exp Bot 62:10–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhu JK (2001) Plant soil tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 6:66–71CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhu Z, Wei G, Li J, Qian Q, Yu I (2004) Silicon alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant enzymes activity in leaves of salt-stressed of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Plant Sci 167:527–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zielińska S (2012) Carbohydrates metabolism as one of the elements of mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Kosmos 61:613–623 (In Polish) Google Scholar
  40. Zuccarini P (2008) Effects of silicon on photosynthesis, water relations and nutrient uptake of Phaseolus vulgaris under NaCl stress. Biologia Plantarum 52:157–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • U. Sienkiewicz-Cholewa
    • 1
  • J. Sumisławska
    • 1
  • E. Sacała
    • 2
  • M. Dziągwa-Becker
    • 1
  • R. Kieloch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Weed Science and Tillage Systems in WrocławInstitute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation- State Research Institute in PuławyPuławyPoland
  2. 2.Wrocław University of Environmental and Life ScienceWrocławPoland

Personalised recommendations