Advertisement

Frontiers in Energy

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 233–238 | Cite as

Nitrogen-doped graphene approach to enhance the performance of a membraneless enzymatic biofuel cell

Research Article
  • 43 Downloads

Abstract

Heteroatom-doping of pristine graphene is an effective route for tailoring new characteristics in terms of catalytic performance which opens up potentials for new applications in energy conversion and storage devices. Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene), for instance, has shown excellent performance in many electrochemical systems involving oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and more recently glucose oxidation. Owing to the excellent H2O2 sensitivity of N-graphene, the development of highly sensitive and fast-response enzymatic biosensors is made possible. However, a question that needs to be addressed is whether or not improving the anodic response to glucose detection leads to a higher overall performance of enzymatic biofuel cell (eBFC). Thus, here we first synthesized N-graphene via a catalyst-free single-step thermal process, and made use of it as the biocatalyst support in a membraneless eBFC to identify its role in altering the performance characteristics. Our findings demonstrate that the electron accepting nitrogen sites in the graphene structure enhances the electron transfer efficiency between the mediator (redox polymer), redox active site of the enzymes, and electrode surface. Moreover, the best performance in terms of power output and current density of eBFCs was observed when the bioanode was modified with highly doped N-graphene.

Keywords

enzymatic fuel cell nitrogen-doped graphene reduced graphene oxide catalyst-free synthesis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgement

We highly thank Dr. Shelley D. Minteer and Dr. David P. Hickey (University of Utah) and Dr. Ross D. Milton (Stanford University) for kindly providing us with An-MWCNT and for their guidelines and support. This work also made use of instruments in the Electron Microscopy Service (EMS), at the Research Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago.

References

  1. 1.
    Rasmussen M, Abdellaoui S, Minteer S D. Enzymatic biofuel cells: 30 years of critical advancements. Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 2016, 76: 91–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Meredith M T, Minteer S D. Biofuel cells: enhanced enzymatic bioelectrocatalysis. Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry (Palo Alto, Calif.), 2012, 5(1): 157–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yazdi A A, D’Angelo L, Omer N, Windiasti G, Lu X, Xu J. Carbon nanotube modification of microbial fuel cell electrodes. Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 2016, 85: 536–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pankratov D, Sundberg R, Sotres J, Maximov I, Graczyk M, Suyatin D B, González-Arribas E, Lipkin A, Montelius L, Shleev S. Transparent and flexible, nanostructured and mediatorless glucose/oxygen enzymatic fuel cells. Journal of Power Sources, 2015, 294: 501–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Milton R D, Lim K, Hickey D P, Minteer S D. Employing FADdependent glucose dehydrogenase within a glucose/oxygen enzy-matic fuel cell operating in human serum. Bioelectrochemistry (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 2015, 106(Pt A): 56–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang L, Chen L, Zhou X, Liu Z. Towards high-voltage aqueous metal-ion batteries beyond 1.5 V: the zinc/zinc hexacyanoferrate system. Advanced Energy Materials, 2015, 5(2): 1400930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ogawa Y, Takai Y, Kato Y, Kai H, Miyake T, Nishizawa M. Stretchable biofuel cell with enzyme-modified conductive textiles. Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 2015, 74: 947–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Neto S A, Milton R D, Hickey D P, Andrade A R D, Minteer S D. Membraneless enzymatic ethanol/O2 fuel cell: transitioning from an air-breathing Pt-based cathode to a bilirubin oxidase-based biocathode. Journal of Power Sources, 2016, 324: 208–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Qu L, Liu Y, Baek J B, Dai L. Nitrogen-doped graphene as efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction in fuel cells. ACS Nano, 2010, 4(3): 1321–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ito Y, Cong W, Fujita T, Tang Z, Chen M. High catalytic activity of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped nanoporous graphene in the hydrogen evolution reaction. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2015, 54(7): 2131–2136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lin Z, Waller G H, Liu Y, Liu M, Wong C P. Simple preparation of nanoporous few-layer nitrogen-doped graphene for use as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions. Carbon, 2013, 53: 130–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang H, Maiyalagan T, Wang X. Review on recent progress in nitrogen-doped graphene: synthesis, characterization, and its potential applications. ACS Catalysis, 2012, 2(5): 781–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang Y, Shao Y, Matson D W, Li J, Lin Y. Nitrogen-doped graphene and its application in electrochemical biosensing. ACS Nano, 2010, 4(4): 1790–1798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thomas T J, Ponnusamy K E, Chang N M, Galmore K, Minteer S D. Effects of annealing on mixture-cast membranes of Nafion® and quaternary ammonium bromide salts. Journal of Membrane Science, 2003, 213(1–2): 55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Akers N L, Moore C M, Minteer S D. Development of alcohol/O2 biofuel cells using salt-extracted tetrabutylammonium bromide/ Nafion membranes to immobilize dehydrogenase enzymes. Electrochimica Acta, 2005, 50(12): 2521–2525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dawn A, Shiraki T, Haraguchi S, Sato H, Sada K, Shinkai S. Transcription of chirality in the organogel systems dictates the enantiodifferentiating photodimerization of substituted anthracene. Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany), 2010, 16(12): 3676–3689Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Minson M, Meredith MT, Shrier A, Giroud F, Hickey D, Glatzhofer D T, Minteer S D. High performance glucose/O2 biofuel cell: effect of utilizing purified laccase with anthracene-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 2012, 159 (12): G166–G170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Milton R D, Giroud F, Thumser A E, Minteer S D, Slade R C T. Bilirubin oxidase bioelectrocatalytic cathodes: the impact of hydrogen peroxide. Chemical Communications, 2014, 50(1): 94–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Merchant S A, Tran T O, Meredith M T, Cline T C, Glatzhofer D T, Schmidtke D W. High-sensitivity amperometric biosensors based on ferrocene-modified linear poly(ethylenimine). Langmuir, 2009, 25 (13): 7736–7742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Merchant S A, Meredith MT, Tran T O, Brunski D B, Johnson MB, Glatzhofer D T, Schmidtke D W. Effect of mediator spacing on electrochemical and enzymatic response of ferrocene redox polymers. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2010, 114(26): 11627–11634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Milton R D, Giroud F, Thumser A E, Minteer S D, Slade R C T. Hydrogen peroxide produced by glucose oxidase affects the performance of laccase cathodes in glucose/oxygen fuel cells: FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase as a replacement. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2013, 15(44): 19371–19379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Meredith M T, Kao D Y, Hickey D, Schmidtke D W, Glatzhofer D T. High current density ferrocene-modified linear poly(ethylenimine) bioanodes and their use in biofuel cells. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 2011, 158(2): B166–B174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lin Z, Song M K, Ding Y, Liu Y, Liu M, Wong C P. Facile preparation of nitrogen-doped graphene as a metal-free catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2012, 14(10): 3381–3387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sheng Z H, Shao L, Chen J J, Bao W J, Wang F B, Xia X H. Catalyst-free synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene via thermal annealing graphite oxide with melamine and its excellent electrocatalysis. ACS Nano, 2011, 5(6): 4350–4358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Das A, Pisana S, Chakraborty B, Piscanec S, Saha S K, Waghmare U V, Novoselov K S, Krishnamurthy H R, Geim A K, Ferrari A C, Sood A K. Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor. Nature Nanotechnology, 2008, 3(4): 210–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jia Y, Zhang L, Du A, Gao G, Chen J, Yan X, Brown C L, Yao X. Defect graphene as a trifunctional catalyst for electrochemical reactions. Advanced Materials, 2016, 28(43): 9532–9538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wei D, Liu Y, Wang Y, Zhang H, Huang L, Yu G. Synthesis of Ndoped graphene by chemical vapor deposition and its electrical properties. Nano Letters, 2009, 9(5): 1752–1758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Karyakin A A. Prussian blue and its analogues: electrochemistry and analytical applications. Electroanalysis, 2001, 13(10): 813–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhao W, Xu J J, Shi C G, Chen H Y. Multilayer membranes via layer-by-layer deposition of organic polymer protected Prussian blue nanoparticles and glucose oxidase for glucose biosensing. Langmuir, 2005, 21(21): 9630–9634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Karyakin A A, Gitelmacher O V, Karyakina E E. Prussian bluebased first-generation biosensor. A sensitive amperometric electrode for glucose. Analytical Chemistry, 1995, 67(14): 2419–2423Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yazdi A A, Preite R, Milton R D, Hickey D P, Minteer S D, Xu J. Rechargeable membraneless glucose biobattery: towards solid-state cathodes for implantable enzymatic devices. Journal of Power Sources, 2017, 343: 103–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations