Advertisement

Frontiers in Energy

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 146–154 | Cite as

Possible role of power-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid as storages and flexible loads in the German 110 kV distribution grid

  • Erik Blasius
Research Article

Abstract

The sectoral coupling of road traffic (in form of E-Mobility) and electrical energy supply (known as power-to-vehicle (P2V), vehicle-to-grid (V2G) is discussed as one of the possible development concepts for the flexible system integration of renewable energy sources (RES) and the support of the objectives of the German energy transition (aka. Energiewende). It is obvious that E-mobility, which shall produce as few emissions as possible, should be based on the exclusive use of renewable energies. At the same time, the E-mobility can help to reduce the negative effects of the grid integration of RES to the distribution grids. However, this assumes that the electric vehicles are smart integrated to the grids where they charge, meaning that they must be able to communicate and be controllable. Because per se unplanned and uncontrollable charging processes are harmful for the grid operation, especially if they occur frequently and unexpected in similar time periods, the effects can hardly be controlled and can lead to serious technical problems in practical grid operation. This paper provides an insight into the current development of E-mobility in Germany. The insight will be matched with the German development of the RES. By the combination of both sectors, the possible role of the E-mobility for the distribution grid will be depicted, which can have positive and negative aspects.

Keywords

P2V V2G grid integration electric vehicles distribution grid 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    European Commission. Reducing CO2 emissions from passenger cars. 2016–12, http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport/vehicles/cars_en (in German)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Federal Ministry for the Environment. Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. German climate policy. 2016–12, http://www.bmub.bund.de/themen/klima-energie/klimaschutz/nationale-klimapolitik/klimapolitik-der-bundesregierung/ (in German)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Climate Change Newsroom U N. Historic Paris Agreement on climate change. 2016–12, http://newsroom.unfccc.int/unfccc-newsroom/finale-cop21/ (in German)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Environmental Protection Agency. Sources of emissions in Germany. 2016–12, https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/themen/klima-energie/klimaschutz-energiepolitik-in-deutschland/treibhausgas-emissionen/emissionsquellen (in German)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    BMUB. The German government’s climate action programme 2020. 2014–12, http://www.bmub.bund.de/fileadmin/Daten_BMU/Pools/Broschueren/aktionsprogramm_klimaschutz_2020_broschuere_en_bf.pdfGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Statistics. Number of electric vehicles in Germany. 2016–12, https://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/265995/umfrage/anzahl-derelektroautos-in-deutschland/ (in German)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Federal Ministry for the Environment. Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. Climate action plan 2050. 2016-12, http://www.klimaschutzplan2050.de (in German)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    GREENPEACE. Comparison of electric vehicle and conventional vehicle. 2016–12, https://www.greenpeace.de/themen/klimawandel/klimaschutz/e-auto-und-konventionelles-auto-im-vergleich (in German)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blasius E. A contribution to the grid integration of electric vehicles as controllable loads and mobile storage by an aggregator. 2016–12, https://opus4.kobv.de/opus4-btu/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3859(in German)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Masoum M A S, Moses P S, Hajforoosh S. Distribution transformer stress in smart grid with coordinated charging of plug-in electric vehicles. 2016–9, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp =&arnumber = 6175685Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lopes J A P, Soares F J, Almeida P M R. Integration of electric vehicles in the electric power system. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2011, 99(1): 168–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Richardson P, Flynn D, Keane A. Impact assessment of varying penetrations of electric vehicles on low voltage distribution systems. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bass R, Zimmerman N. Impacts of electric vehicle charging on electric power distribution systems. 2016–11, http://pdxscholar. library.pdx.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article = 1165&context = ece_-facGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Statistics. Share of RES in Germany. 2016–11, https://de.statista. com/statistik/daten/studie/171368/umfrage/struktur-der-bruttostromerzeugung-durch-erneuerbare-energien-in-deutschland/ (in German)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    STEPMAP. WindNODE project summary (Ratios in north-east-Germany and map of Germany). 2016–12, http://www.stepmap.de/landkarte/deutschland-145049 (in German)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    NIEDERLAUSITZ AKTUELL. RES in the grid of DSO MITNETZ strom. 2016–08, http://www.niederlausitz-aktuell.de/brandenburg/item/59131-erneuerbare-energien-im-netzgebiet-der-mitnetz-stromweiter-im-aufwind.html (in German)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    50Hertz. Measures and adjustments related to system responsibility of TSO 50Hertz transmission GmbH. 2016–08, http:www.50hertz. com/de/Kennzahlen/Anpassungen-nach-13-EnWG (in German)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    BDEW. E-mobility survey of BDEW. 2016–08, https://www.bdew.de/internet.nsf/id/bdew-erhebung-elektromobilitaet-de (in German)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Young K, Wang C S, Wang L Y, Strunz K. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks. New York: Springer, 2013Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department for Energy Distribution and High Voltage EngineeringBrandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-SenftenbergCottbusGermany

Personalised recommendations