Frontiers in Energy

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 135–145 | Cite as

Possible role of power-to-heat and power-to-gas as flexible loads in German medium voltage networks

  • Mark Kuprat
  • Martin Bendig
  • Klaus Pfeiffer
Research Article


Germany’s energy transition triggered a rapid and unilateral growth of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity sector. With increasing shares of intermittent RES, overcapacities during periods of strong wind and photovoltaic electricity generation occur. In the face of insufficient transmission capacities, due to an inhibited network extension, the electricity generation has to be curtailed. This curtailment of RES leads to economic losses and could be avoided through flexible loads. As an option to cope with those problems, the technologies of power-to-gas (PtG) and power-to-heat (PtH) are presented in this paper. First, the alkaline electrolyzer (AEL), polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzer (PEMEL), and solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) are investigated regarding their operational parameters. Second, the electric boiler, electrode heating boiler, and heat pumps are considered. Ultimately, the network-supporting abilities and the potential to provide ancillary services, such as control power, load sequence operation, cold start and part load capability, are compared among one another.


power-to-gas power-to-heat flexible loads ancillary services coherent energy systems 


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Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Forschungszentrum 3ELS EVHCottbusGermany

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