Frontiers of Materials Science

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 64–73 | Cite as

Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical characterization of different mesoporous TiO2 film electrodes for the immobilization of Cytochrome c

  • Stavros Katsiaounis
  • Christina Tiflidis
  • Christina Tsekoura
  • Emmanuel Topoglidis
Research Article


In this work three different mesoporous TiO2 film electrodes were prepared and used for the immobilization of Cytochrome c (Cyt-c). Films prepared via a standard sol-gel route (SG-films) were compared with commercially available benchmark nanotitania materials, namely P25 Degussa (P25-films) and Dyesol nanopaste (Dyesol films). Their properties, film deposition characteristics and their abilities to adsorb protein molecules in a stable and functional way were examined. We investigated whether it is possible, rather than preparing TiO2 films using multistep, lengthy and not always reproducible sol-gel procedures, to use commercially available nanotitania materials and produce reproducible films faster that exhibit all the properties that make TiO2 films ideal for protein immobilization. Although these materials are formulated primarily for dye-sensitized solar cell applications, in this study we found out that protein immobilization is facile and remarkably stable on all of them. We also investigated their electrochemical properties by using cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry and found out that not only direct reduction of Fe(III)-heme to Fe(II)-heme of immobilized Cyt-c was possible on all films but that the adsorbed protein remained electroactive.


TiO2 films spectroelectrochemistry cyclic voltammetry Cytochrome c 


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This work was partially supported by a small initiative grant from the University of Patras.


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Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stavros Katsiaounis
    • 1
  • Christina Tiflidis
    • 1
  • Christina Tsekoura
    • 1
  • Emmanuel Topoglidis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Materials ScienceUniversity of PatrasRionGreece

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