A novel fluid catalytic cracking process for maximizing iso-paraffins: from fundamentals to commercialization

Views & Comments


The maximizing iso-paraffins (MIP) developed by RIPP has improved gasoline quality to meet the demand of motor gasoline specification. A concept that two different reaction zones include cracking zone and conversion zone is proposed as the fundamental of MIP by research on fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) reaction chemistry. Based on the concept, the MIP process is featured by applying a novel sequential two-zone riser in conjunction with proprietary catalyst and engineering technique. The developed MIP process can not only improve gasoline yield or gasoline plus propylene yields but also produce gasoline with a higher content of iso-paraffins and a lower content of sulfur. A minimum octane number loss is achieved when MIP gasoline is treated by downstream desulfurization technology (RSDS/S Zorb). The combination of MIP and RSDS/S Zorb processes creates a very competitive route, which is different from the technical route used by other developed countries, to upgrade the quality of motor gasoline with the lowest economic costs in China. In just one decade, the processing capacity of MIP units has accounted for about 60% of the domestic total processing capacity of FCC units. The MIP process is gradually becoming a new generation of FCC technology.


gasoline iso-paraffins FCC desulfurization octane number 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Flank W H, Abraham M A, Matthews M A. Innovations in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Washington DC: American Chemical Society, 2008, 189–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sadeghbeigi R. Fluid Catalytic Cracking Handbook. 3th ed. Waltham: Elsevier, 2012, 2–3Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bos A N R, Tromp P J J, Akse H N. Conversion of methanol to lower olefins. Kinetic modeling, reactor simulation and selection. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 1998, 34(11): 3808–3816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dharia D, Lomg J, Xu Y H, Zhang J S, Batachari A, Yuan E, Gim S, Xu S. Consider new processes for clean gasoline and olefins production. Hydrocarbon Processing, 2011, 9: 85–90Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen J W, Xu Y H. Catalytic Cracking Processing and Engineering. 3th ed. Beijing: Sinopec Press, 2015, 64–69 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Xu Y H, Zhang J S, Long J. A modified FCC process MIP for maximizing iso-paraffins in cracked naphtha. Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals, 2001, 32(8): 1–5 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xu Y H, Zhang J S, Long J, He M Y, Xu H, Hao X R. Development and commercial application of FCC process for maximizing isoparaffins (MIP) in cracked naphtha. Engineering and Science, 2003, 5(5): 55–58 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Scherzer J. Ocatne-enhancing, zeolitic FCC catalysts: Scientific and technical aspects. Catalysis Reviews. Science and Engineering, 1989, 31(3): 215–354Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Xu Y H. Study on the effect of hydrogen transfer reaction on olefin conversion. Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals, 2002, 33(1): 38–41 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tao L X. Hydride transfer reaction in catalytic reaction. Acta Petrolei Sinica, 2008, 24(4): 365–369 (Petroleum Processing Section)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rochettes B M D, Marcilly C, Gueguen C, Bousquet J. Kinetic study of hydrogen transfer of olefins under catalytic cracking conditions. Applied Catalysis, 1990, 58(1): 35–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guisnet M, Gnep N S. Mechanism of short-chain alkane transformation over protonic zeolites. Alkylation, disproportionation and aromatization. Applied Catalysis A, General, 1996, 146(1): 33–64Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boronat M, Corma A. Are carbenium and carbonium ions reaction intermediates in zeolite-catalyzed reactions? Applied Catalysis A, General, 2008, 336(1-2): 2–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xu Y H, Zhang J S, Ma J G, Long J. Controllability of cracking reaction in MIP process. Acta Petrolei Sinica, 2004, 20(3): 1–6Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jiang W B, Long J, Chen B Y, He M Y. Development of RMI cracking catalyst tailored for MIP technology processing paraffin base feedstock. Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals, 2004, 35 (12): 8–12 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gong J H, Xu Y H, Xie C G, Long J, Jiang W B, Qiu Z H. Development of MIP technology and its proprietary catalysts. China Petroleum Processing and Petrochemical Technology, 2009, 2: 1–8Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tammera R F, Jones E N, Smalley C G, Deis P A, Chen A U, Gurciullo C S. FCC reactor and riser design for short contact-time catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons. US Patent, 9358516, 2016-07-06Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yan J S, Long J, Tian H P. Microstructure analysis of alumina sol and acidified pseudoboehmite. Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals, 2004, 35(12): 33–36 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Song H T, Da Z J, Zhu Y X, Tian H P. Effect of coke deposition on the remaining activity of FCC catalysts during gas oil and residue cracking. Catalysis Communications, 2011, 16(1): 70–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Song H T, Jiang W B, Da Z J. Reaction behaviors of normal hydrocarbons over FCC catalyst matrices. Acta Petrolei Sinica, 2003, 19(3): 14–19 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shen N Y, Chen B Y, Song H T, JiangWB. Development of RMI-II catalyst tailored for MIP technology processing intermediate base feedstock. Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals, 2006, 37(9): 1–5 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yang J, Xie X D, Cai Z, Xu Y H. Commercial trial of MIP-CGP process. Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals, 2006, 37(8): 54–59 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Xu Y H, Zhang J S, Xu H, Hao X R. Commercial application of a novel FCC process for maximizing iso-paraffins in cracked naphtha. Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals, 2003, 34(11): 1–6 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Xu Y H. Advance in China fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. Scientia Sinica (Chimica), 2014, 44(1): 13–24 (in Chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Xu Y H. Chemistry & Process of Catalytic Cracking. Beijing: China Science Press, 2013, 277–279 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Xu Y H, Qu J H, Yang Y T, Xu L. Analysis of octane number and composition characteristics of MIP naphtha. Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals, 2009, 40(1): 10–14 (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP)SinopecBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations