Advertisement

Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 194–208 | Cite as

New approaches to water purification for resource-constrained settings: Production of activated biochar by chemical activation with diammonium hydrogenphosphate

  • Mohit Nahata
  • Chang Y. Seo
  • Pradeep Krishnakumar
  • Johannes Schwank
Research Article
  • 71 Downloads

Abstract

A significant portion of the world’s population does not have access to safe drinking water. This problem is most acute in remote, resource-constrained rural settings in developing countries. Water filtration using activated carbon is one of the important steps in treating contaminated water. Lignocellulosic biomass is generally available in abundance in such locations, such as the African rain forests. Our work is focused on developing a simple method to synthesize activated biochar from locally available materials. The preparation of activated biochar with diammonium hydrogenphosphate (DAP) as the activating agent is explored under N2 flow and air. The study, carried out with cellulose as a model biomass, provides some insight into the interaction between DAP and biomass, as well as the char forming mechanism. Various characterization techniques such as N2 physisorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are utilized to compare the properties between biochar formed under nitrogen and partial oxidative conditions. At a temperature of 450 °C, the loading of DAP over cellulose is systematically varied, and its effect on activation is examined. The activated biochar samples are predominantly microporous in the range of concentrations studied. The interaction of DAP with cellulose is investigated and the nature of bonding of the heteroatoms to the carbonaceous matrix is elucidated. The results indicate that the quality of biochar prepared under partial oxidation condition is comparable to that of biochar prepared under nitrogen, leading to the possibility of an activated biochar production scheme on a small scale in resource-constrained settings.

Keywords

cellulose DAP activation heteroatom microporous 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Support of this work by REFRESCH, funded through the University of Michigan’s Global Challenges for the Third Century program, is gratefully acknowledged. The authors thank Dr. Galen Fisher, Dr. Xiaoyin Chen and Dr. Andrew Tadd for their valuable insights during the research.

References

  1. 1.
    Collard F X, Blin J. A review on pyrolysis of biomass constituents: Mechanisms and composition of the products obtained from the conversion of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2014, 38: 594–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Antal M J, Grønli M. The art, science, and technology of charcoal production. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2003, 42 (8): 1619–1640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Downie A E, Van Zwieten L, Smernik R J, Morris S, Munroe P R. Terra Preta Australis: Reassessing the carbon storage capacity of temperate soils. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 2011, 140 (1): 137–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Huggins T M, Haeger A, Biffinger J C, Ren Z J. Granular biochar compared with activated carbon for wastewater treatment and resource recovery. Water Research, 2016, 94: 225–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rodríguez-Reinoso F, Molina-Sabio M, González M T. The use of steam and CO2 as activating agents in the preparation of activated carbons. Carbon, 1995, 33(1): 15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Caturla F, Molina-Sabio M, Rodríguez-Reinoso F. Preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation with ZnCl2. Carbon, 1991, 29(7): 999–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Molina-Sabio M, Almansa C, Rodríguez-Reinoso F. Phosphoric acid activated carbon discs for methane adsorption. Carbon, 2003, 41(11): 2113–2119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yoon S H, Lim S, Song Y, Ota Y, Qiao W, Tanaka A, Mochida I. KOH activation of carbon nanofibers. Carbon, 2004, 42(8): 1723–1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jagtoyen M, Derbyshire F. Activated carbons from yellow poplar and white oak by H3PO4 activation. Carbon, 1998, 36(7): 1085–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Molina-Sabio M, Rodríguez-Reinoso F, Caturla F, Sellés M J. Porosity in granular carbons activated with phosphoric acid. Carbon, 1995, 33(8): 1105–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fitzer E, Geigl K H, Hüttner W, Weiss R. Chemical interactions between the carbon fibre surface and epoxy resins. Carbon, 1980, 18 (6): 389–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Puziy A, Poddubnaya O, Martínez-Alonso A, Suárez-García F, Tascón J M. Synthetic carbons activated with phosphoric acid: I. Surface chemistry and ion binding properties. Carbon, 2002, 40(9): 1493–1505Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hu B, Wang K, Wu L, Yu S H, Antonietti M, Titirici M M. Engineering carbon materials from the hydrothermal carbonization process of biomass. Advanced Materials, 2010, 22(7): 813–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hu B, Yu S H, Wang K, Liu L, Xu X W. Functional carbonaceous materials from hydrothermal carbonization of biomass: An effective chemical process. Dalton Transactions (Cambridge, England), 2008, 40(40): 5414–5423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Benaddi H, Bandosz T, Jagiello J, Schwarz J, Rouzaud J, Legras D, Béguin F. Surface functionality and porosity of activated carbons obtained from chemical activation of wood. Carbon, 2000, 38(5): 669–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mohan D, Pittman Charles U, Steele P H. Pyrolysis of wood/ biomass for bio-oil: A critical review. Energy & Fuels, 2006, 20(3): 848–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Di Blasi C, Branca C, Galgano A. Effects of diammonium phosphate on the yields and composition of products from wood pyrolysis. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2007, 46 (2): 430–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ilharco L M, Garcia A R, Lopes da Silva J, Vieira Ferreira L F. Infrared approach to the study of adsorption on cellulose: Influence of cellulose crystallinity on the adsorption of benzophenone. Langmuir, 1997, 13(15): 4126–4132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bouchard J, Abatzoglou N, Chornet E, Overend R P. Characterization of depolymerized cellulosic residues. Wood Science and Technology, 1989, 23(4): 343–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Branca C, Di B C. Oxidation characteristics of chars generated from wood impregnated with (NH4)2HPO4 and (NH4)2SO4. Thermochimica Acta, 2007, 456(2): 120–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sing K S W. Reporting physisorption data for gas/solid systems with special reference to the determination of surface area and porosity (Recommendations 1984). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 1985, 57 (4): 603–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Molina-Sabio M, Rodríguez-Reinoso F. Role of chemical activation in the development of carbon porosity. Colloids and Surfaces. A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2004, 241(1): 15–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Oshida K, Kogiso K, Matsubayashi K, Takeuchi K, Kobayashi S, Endo M, Dresselhaus M S, Dresselhaus G. Analysis of pore structure of activated carbon fibers using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and image processing. Journal of Materials Research, 1995, 10(10): 2507–2517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Puziy A M, Poddubnaya O I, Socha R P, Gurgul J, Wisniewski M. XPS and NMR studies of phosphoric acid activated carbons. Carbon, 2008, 46(15): 2113–2123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kannan A G, Choudhury N R, Dutta N K. Synthesis and characterization of methacrylate phospho-silicate hybrid for thin film applications. Polymer, 2007, 48(24): 7078–7086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pels J R, Kapteijn F, Moulijn J A, Zhu Q, Thomas K M. Evolution of nitrogen functionalities in carbonaceous materials during pyrolysis. Carbon, 1995, 33(11): 1641–1653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sethia G, Sayari A. Comprehensive study of ultra-microporous nitrogen-doped activated carbon for CO2 capture. Carbon, 2015, 93: 68–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pelavin M, Hendrickson D N, Hollander J M, Jolly W L. Phosphorus 2p electron binding energies. Correlation with extended Hueckel charges. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 1970, 74(5): 1116–1121Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Marsh H, Rodríguez-Reinoso F. Activated carbon. Elsevier, 2006, 224–225Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhou Y, Candelaria S L, Liu Q, Uchaker E, Cao G. Porous carbon with high capacitance and graphitization through controlled addition and removal of sulfur-containing compounds. Nano Energy, 2015, 12: 567–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jawhari T, Roid A, Casado J. Raman spectroscopic characterization of some commercially available carbon black materials. Carbon, 1995, 33(11): 1561–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shimodaira N, Masui A. Raman spectroscopic investigations of activated carbon materials. Journal of Applied Physics, 2002, 92(2): 902–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohit Nahata
    • 1
  • Chang Y. Seo
    • 1
  • Pradeep Krishnakumar
    • 1
  • Johannes Schwank
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of Michigan-Ann ArborAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations