Stereotactic robot-assisted transperineal prostate biopsy under local anaesthesia and sedation: moving robotic biopsy from operating theatre to clinic


This IRB-approved prospective pilot study evaluates the safety and feasibility of performing stereotactic robot-assisted transperineal MRI-US fusion targeted prostate biopsy under local anaesthesia (LA) with sedation. 30 patients who underwent robotic transperineal prostate biopsy between September 2017 and June 2018 were recruited. All biopsies were performed with the iSR’obot Mona Lisa® and BK3000 ultrasound system. Intravenous paracetamol 1 g, with midazolam and fentanyl were given at positioning. After administration of 5 mL of 1%-lidocaine into the perineal skin 2 cm above and lateral to the anus, periapical prostatic block with 10 mL mixture of 1%-Lidocaine and 0.5%-Marcaine was given. The median age of patients was 66 years (range 53–80 years). Median PSA and mean prostate volume were 8.1 ng/ml (range 4.2–20.6 ng/ml) and 40.1 cc (range 18.6–70 cc). 24 (80.0%) patients had targeted prostate biopsy, with median number of targeted cores of 8 (range 5–16). All patients had saturation biopsy and median number of saturation cores was 21 (range 9–48). Mean dose of intravenous midazolam given was 1.5 mg (range 0–5 mg) and intravenous fentanyl was 75 mcg (10–150 mcg). No patient required conversion to GA. Two patients required motion compensation of 3 mm and 7.5 mm, respectively, due minor movement. Immediate post-operative pain score was 0 for all patients. 29 of 30 patients (96.7%) were discharged within 24 h of procedure. There were no immediate severe complications. Adenocarcinoma was detected in 19/30 (63.3%) cases. This pilot feasibility study showed that stereotactic robotic transperineal MRI-US fusion targeted prostate biopsy can be safely and accurately performed under LA with sedation.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kenneth Chen.

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Conflict of interest

XinYan Yang, Lee Yuanming Alvin, Law Yan Mee, Sim Soon Phang Allen, Tay Kae Jack, Lau Kam On Weber, Ho Sun Sien Henry, Yuen Shyi Peng John, Kenneth Chen declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000.

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Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

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Yang, X., Lee, A.Y., Law, Y.M. et al. Stereotactic robot-assisted transperineal prostate biopsy under local anaesthesia and sedation: moving robotic biopsy from operating theatre to clinic. J Robotic Surg 14, 767–772 (2020).

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  • Robot-assisted
  • Transperineal prostate biopsy
  • Prostate cancer
  • Local anaesthesia
  • Cancer detection