Chemical Papers

, Volume 73, Issue 5, pp 1145–1152 | Cite as

A Ti/IrO2–RuO2–TiO2 anode in the Fered-Fenton process: preparation and performance in the removal of chemical oxygen demand from biochemically treated leachate

  • Xinxin Bai
  • Jun Zhang
  • Xiaogang WuEmail author
  • Qian Li
  • Wei Xie
  • Daobin Zhang
  • Hui ZhangEmail author
Original Paper


The preparation and performance of a Ti/IrO2–RuO2–TiO2 anode in the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from biochemically treated landfill leachate by the Fered-Fenton process were investigated. The Taguchi design was applied to obtain the optimal conditions for preparation of the Ti/IrO2–RuO2–TiO2 anode by thermal decomposition method. The optimal preparation conditions were as follows: Ir and Ru molar contents of 20% and 30%, respectively, a calcine temperature of 500 °C and a precursor solvent of HCl + butyl alcohol. After a 50-min Fered-Fenton treatment, 77.9% of the COD was removed from biochemically treated leachate using the electrode prepared under the optimal conditions derived from the Taguchi method.

Graphical abstract


Fered-Fenton Leachate DSA Ti/IrO2–RuO2–TiO2 Taguchi method 



This work was supported by the National High-Tech R&D Program (863 Program) of China (Grant No. 2008AA06Z332), Wuhan Science and Technology Bureau through “The Gongguan Project” (Grant No. 201060723313), Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province (Grant No. 2014CFB334), the R&D Project of Ministry of Housing and Urban–Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China (Grant No. 2015-K7-011).


  1. Atmaca E (2009) Treatment of landfill leachate by using electro-Fenton method. J Hazard Mater 163(1):109–114. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beer HB (1980) The invention and industrial-development of metal anodes. J Electrochem Soc 127(8):C303–C307. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brillas E, Sires I, Oturan MA (2009) Electro-Fenton process and related electrochemical technologies based on Fenton’s reaction chemistry. Chem Rev 109:6570–6631. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Can OT (2014) COD removal from fruit-juice production wastewater by electrooxidation electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton processes. Desalin Water Treat 52(1–3):65–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chellammal S, Kalaiselvi P, Ganapathy P, Subramanian G (2016) Anodic incineration of phthalic anhydride using RuO2–IrO2–SnO2–TiO2 coated on Ti anode. Arab J Chem 9:S1690–S1699. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clarke BO, Anumol T, Barlaz M, Snyder SA (2015) Investigating landfill leachate as a source of trace organic pollutants. Chemosphere 127:269–275. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE, Eaton AD (1999) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control FederationGoogle Scholar
  8. Comninellis C, Vercesi GP (1991) Characterization of DSA®-type oxygen evolving electrodes: choice of a coating. J Appl Electrochem 21(4):335–345. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davarnejad R, Moraveji MK, Pirhadi M, Mohammadi M (2014) Simulation of landfill leachate treatment using electro-Fenton technique. Water Sci Technol 69(2):343–349. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Coster J, Vanherck W, Appels L, Dewil R (2017) Selective electrochemical degradation of 4-chlorophenol at a Ti/RuO2-IrO2 anode in chloride rich wastewater. J Environ Manage 190:61–71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Deng Y, Englehardt JD (2007) Electrochemical oxidation for landfill leachate treatment. Waste Manage 27(3):380–388. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Derco J, Gotvajn AZ, Zagorc-Koncan J, Almasiova B, Kassai A (2010) Pretreatment of landfill leachate by chemical oxidation processes. Chem Pap 64:237–245. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. El-Ghenymy A, Rodriguez RM, Brillas E, Oturan N, Oturan MA (2014) Electro-Fenton degradation of the antibiotic sulfanilamide with Pt/carbon-felt and BDD/carbon-felt cells. Kinetics, reaction intermediates, and toxicity assessment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21(14):8368–8378. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. El-Kacemi S, Zazou H, Oturan N, Dietze M, Hamdani M, Es-Souni M, Oturan MA (2017) Nanostructured ZnO-TiO2 thin film oxide as anode material in electrooxidation of organic pollutants. Application to the removal of dye Amido black 10B from water. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:1442–1449. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fan NW, Li ZK, Zhao L, Wu NM, Zhou T (2013) Electrochemical denitrification and kinetics study using Ti/IrO2–TiO2–RuO2 as the anode and Cu/Zn as the cathode. Chem Eng J 214:83–90. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fernandes A, Santos D, Pacheco MJ, Ciriaco L, Lopes A (2016) Electrochemical oxidation of humic acid and sanitary landfill leachate: influence of anode material, chloride concentration and current density. Sci Total Enviro 541:282–291. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fierroa S, Ouattara L, Calderon EH, Passas-Lagos E, Baltruschat H, Comninellis C (2009) Investigation of formic acid oxidation on Ti/IrO2 electrodes. Electrochimi Acta 54(7):2053–2061. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jasper JT, Shafaat OS, Hoffmann MR (2016) Electrochemical transformation of trace organic contaminants in latrine wastewater. Environ Sci Technol 50(18):10198–10208. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kurniawan TA, Lo W-H, Chan GYS (2006) Radicals-catalyzed oxidation reactions for degradation of recalcitrant compounds from landfill leachate. Chem Eng J 125(1):35–57. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mackul’ak T, Olejnikova P, Prousek J, Svorc L (2011) Toxicity reduction of 2-(5-nitrofuryl) acrylic acid following Fenton reaction treatment. Chem Pap 65(6):835–839. Google Scholar
  21. Montgomery DC (2001) Design and analysis of experiments, 5th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Moreira FC, Soler J, Fonseca A, Saraiva I, Boaventura RAR, Brillas E, Vilar VJP (2016) Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes for sanitary landfill leachate remediation: evaluation of operational variables. Appl Catal B-Environ 182:161–171. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Phadke MS (1989) Quality engineering using robust design. PTR. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  24. Renou S, Givaudan JG, Poulain S, Dirassouyan F, Moulin P (2008) Landfill leachate treatment: review and opportunity. J Hazard Mater 150(3):468–493. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Santos MJR, Medeiros MC, Oliveira T, Morais CCO, Mazzetto SE, Martinez-Huitle CA, Castro SSL (2016) Electrooxidation of cardanol on mixed metal oxide (RuO2–TiO2 and IrO2–RuO2–TiO2) coated titanium anodes: insights into recalcitrant phenolic compounds. Electrochimi Acta 212:95–101. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sopaj F, Oturan N, Pinson J, Podvorica F, Oturan MA (2016) Effect of the anode materials on the efficiency of the electro-Fenton process for the mineralization of the antibiotic sulfamethazine. Appl Catal B-Environ 199:331–341. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Turro E, Giannis A, Cossu R, Gidarakos E, Mantzavinos D, Katsaounis A (2011) Electrochemical oxidation of stabilized landfill leachate on DSA electrodes. J Hazard Mater 190(1–3):460–465. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang ZP, Huang LZ, Feng XN, Xie PC, Liu ZZ (2010) Removal of phosphorus in municipal landfill leachate by photochemical oxidation combined with ferrate pre-treatment Desalin. Water Treat 22:111–116. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang LQ, Yang Q, Wang DB, Li XM, Zeng GM, Li ZJ, Deng YC, Liu J, Yi KX (2016) Advanced landfill leachate treatment using iron-carbon microelectrolysis-Fenton process: process optimization and column experiments. J Hazard Mater 318:460–467. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wei F, Qi W, Sun Z, Huang Y, Shen Y (2002) Water and wastewater monitoring and analysis method, 4th edn. China Environmental Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  31. Xu L, Pan GS, Liang XL, Luo GH, Zou CL, Luo HM (2014) Electrocatalytic activity of Fe-N/C-TsOH catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media. Acta Physico-Chimica Sini 30(2):318–324. Google Scholar
  32. Zazou H, Oturan N, Sonmez-Celebi M, Hamdani M, Oturan MA (2016) Mineralization of chlorobenzene in aqueous medium by anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton processes using Pt or BDD anode and carbon felt cathode. J Electroanaly Chem 774:22–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhang H, Zhang DB, Zhou JY (2006) Removal of COD from landfill leachate by electro-Fenton method. J Hazard Mater 135(1–3):106–111. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhang DB, Wu XG, Wang YS, Zhang H (2014) Landfill leachate treatment using the sequencing batch biofilm reactor method integrated with the electro-Fenton process. Chem Pap 68(6):782–787. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hubei Environmental Remediation Material Engineering Technology Research CenterWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.School of Urban ConstructionYangtze UniversityJingzhouChina
  3. 3.Central and Southern China Municipal Engineering Design & Research Institute Co., LtdWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations