Advertisement

Chemical Papers

, Volume 72, Issue 11, pp 2879–2891 | Cite as

Investigation of an alternative chemical agent to recover valuable metals from anode slime

  • Aydın RüşenEmail author
  • Mehmet Ali Topçu
Original Paper
  • 308 Downloads

Abstract

Anode slime (AS) including high content of precious metals is a by-product obtained after the electro-refining stage in copper production. In this study, it is aimed to recover Cu, Au, and Ag from the AS by using 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulphate ([Bmim]HSO4) ionic liquid (IL) as a green solvent. The effects of IL concentration, temperature, reaction time and pulp density on recovery of valuable metals were statistically investigated. A high copper recovery of 87.52% was obtained under optimum condition as in 60% (v/v) [Bmim]HSO4 at 50 °C after 2 h, pulp density at 40 g/L (1/25 solid/liquid ratio). Also, a remarkable gold recovery as 97.32% has been achieved in 80% (v/v) [Bmim]HSO4 at 95 °C after 4 h, pulp density at 40 g/L. Temperature and IL concentration were detected as the most effective parameters for copper and gold recovery from AS, respectively. Silver could not be recovered from the AS due to the lower solubility in [Bmim]HSO4 IL media. According to experimental results, [Bmim]HSO4 could be offered as an alternative leaching agent, instead of conventional solvents, to recover valuable metals from copper anode slime.

Keywords

Anode slime Recovery Ionic liquids 1-Butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulphate [Bmim]HSO4 Leaching 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University Scientific Research Projects (BAP) Coordinating Office with project no 04—YL—16.

References

  1. Abbot AP, McKenzie KJ (2006) Application of ionic liquids to the electrodeposition of metals. Phys Chem Chem Phys 8(37):4265–4279.  https://doi.org/10.1039/B607329H CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel–RehimA AM (2006) Thermal and XRD analysis of Egyptian galena. J Therm Anal Calorim 86(2):393–401.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-005-6785-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amer A (2003) Processing of copper anodic-slimes for extraction of valuable metals. Waste Manag 23(8):763–770.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0956-053X(03)00066-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arce GL, Neto TGS, Ávila I, Luna CM, Carvalho JA Jr (2017) Leaching optimization of mining wastes with lizardite and brucite contents for use in indirect mineral carbonation through the pH swing method. J Cleaner Prod 141:1324–1336.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.09.204 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bakkar A (2014) Recycling of electric arc furnace dust through dissolution in deep eutectic ionic liquids and electrowining. J Hazard Mater 280:191–199.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.07.066 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bayat M, Nabavi MS, Mohammadi T (2017) An experimental study for finding the best condition for PHI zeolite synthesis using Taguchi method for gas separation. Chem Pap 68(9):1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11696-017-0366-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Behnajady B, Moghaddam J (2017) Selective leaching of zinc from hazardous as-bearing zinc plant purification filter cake. Chem Eng Res Des 117:564–574.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2016.11.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Biswas J, Jana RK, Dasgupta P, Bandyopadhyay M, Sanyal S K (1998) Hydrometallurgical processing of anode slime for recovery of valuable metals. In: Bandopadhyay A, Goswani NG, Rao PR (eds) Environmental and Waste Management. National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, India, pp 216–224Google Scholar
  9. Chen TT, Dutrizac JE (2005) Mineralogical characterization of a copper anode and the anode slimes from the La Caridad copper refinery of Mexicana de Cobre. Metall Mater Trans B 36(2):229–240.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-005-0024-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen L, Sharifzadeh M, Mac DN, Welton T, Shah N, Hallett JP (2014) Inexpensive ionic liquids: [HSO4 ]-based solvent production at bulk scale. Green Chem 16(6):3098–3106.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C4GC00016A CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen A, Peng Z, Hwang JY, Ma Y, Liu X, Chen X (2015) Recovery of silver and gold from copper anode slime. JOM 67(2):493–502.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-014-1114-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crowhurst L, Mawdsley PR, Perez-Arlandis JM, Salter PA, Welton T (2003) Solvent-solute interactions in ionic liquids. Phys Chem Chem Phys 5(13):2790–2794.  https://doi.org/10.1039/B303095D CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dhawan N, Safarzadeh MS, Birinci M (2011) Kinetics of hydrochloric acid leaching of smithsonite. Rus J Non-Ferr Metal 53(2):209–216.  https://doi.org/10.3103/S1067821211030059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dong T, Hua Y, Zhang Q, Zhou D (2009) Leaching of chalcopyrite with Brønsted acidic ionic liquid. Hydrometallurgy 99(1):33–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2009.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dönmez B, Çelik C, Çolak S, Yartaşı A (1998) Dissolution optimization of copper from anode slime in H2SO4. Ind Eng Chem Res 37(8):3382–3387.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie9800290 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dunn JG, Muzenda C (2001) Thermal oxidation of covellite (CuS). Thermochim Acta 369:117–123.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6031(00)00748-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guo ZH, Pan FK, Xiao XY, Zhang L, Jiang KQ (2010) Optimization of brine leaching of metals from hydrometallurgical residue. T Nonferr Metal Soc 20(10):2000–2005.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(09)60408-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hait J, Jana RK, Kumar V, Dasgupta P, Bandyopadhyay M, Sanyal SK (1998) Hydrometallurgical processing of anode slime for recovery valuable metals. In: Bandopadhyay A (ed) Environmental waste management in non ferrous metallurgical industries. Jamshedpur, NML, pp 29–30Google Scholar
  19. Hait J, Jana RK, Kumar V, Sanyal SK (2002) Some studies on sulfuric acid leaching of anode slime with additives. Ind Eng Chem Res 42(25):6593–6599.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie020239j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hait J, Jana RK, Sanyal SK (2009) Processing of copper electrorefining anode slime: review. Trans Inst Min Metall Sect C 115:9–12.  https://doi.org/10.1179/174328509X431463 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hoogerstraete VT, Onghena B, Binnemans K (2013) Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction of metal ions with a functionalized ionic liquid. J Phys Chem Lett 4(10):1659–1663.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jz4005366 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hu J, Tian G, Zi F, Hu X (2017) Leaching of chalcopyrite with hydrogen peroxide in 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate ionic liquid aqueous solution. Hydrometallurgy 169:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2016.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huang J, Chen M, Chen H, Chen S, Sun Q (2014) Leaching behavior of copper from waste printed circuit boards with Brønsted acidic ionic liquid. Waste Manag 34(2):483–488.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2013.10.027 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Khaleghi A, Ghader S, Afzali D (2014) Ag recovery from copper anode slime by acid leaching at atmospheric pressure to synthesize silver nanoparticles. Int J Min Sci Technol 24(2):251–257.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmst.2014.01.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kılıç Y, Kartal G, Timur S (2013) An investigation of copper and selenium recovery from copper anode slimes. Int J Miner Process 124:75–82.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.minpro.2013.04.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kılıçarslan A, Sarıdede MN, Srecko Stopic, Friedrich B (2014) Use of ionic liquid in leaching process of brass wastes for copper and zinc recovery. Int J Miner Metall Mater 21(2):138–143.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-014-0876-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kim SM, Park KS, Do KK, Park SD, Kim HT (2009) Optimization of parameters for the synthesis of biomodal Ag nanoparticles by Taguchi method. J Ind Eng Chem 15(6):894–897.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2009.09.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kumar SR, Sureshkumar K, Velraj R (2015) Optimization of biodiesel production from Manilkarazapota (L.) seed oil using Taguchi method. Fuel 140:90–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.09.103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li W, Yang T, Zhang D, Chen L, Liu Y (2014) Pretreatment of copper anode slime with alkaline pressure oxidative leaching. Int J Miner Process 128:48–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li D, Guo X, Xu Z, Tian Q, Feng Q (2015) Leaching behavior of metals from copper anode slime using alkali fusion—leaching process. Hydrometallurgy 157:9–12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lu DK, Chang YF, Yang HY, Feng XIE (2015) Sequential removal of selenium and tellurium from copper anode slime with high nickel content. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 25(4):1307–1314.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(15)63729-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mbuya B, Kime MB, Tshimombo AM (2017) Comparative study of approaches based on the Taguchi and ANOVA for optimising the leaching of copper –cobalt flotation tailings. Chem Eng Commun 204(4):512–521.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00986445.2017.1278588 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Meng X, Han KN (1996) The principles and applications of ammonia leaching of metals-a review. Miner Process Extr Metall Rev 16(1):23–61.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08827509608914128 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Minić D, Śtrbac N, Mihajlovic I, Živković Ž (2005) Thermal analysis and kinetics of the copper-lead matte roasting process. J Therm Anal Calorim 82(2):383–388.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-005-0906-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nakashima K, Kubota F, Maruyama T, Goto M (2005) Feasibility of ionic liquids as alternative separation media for industrial solvent extraction processes. Ind Eng Chem Res 44(12):4368–4372.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie049050t CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Park J, Jung Y, Kusumah P, Lee J, Kwon K, Lee CK (2014) Application of ionic liquids in hydrometallurgy. Int J Mol Sci 15(9):15320–15343.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150915320 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Prameena B, Anbalagan G, Sangeetha V, Gunasekaran S, Ramkumaar GR (2013) Behaviour of Indian natural baryte mineral. Int J Chem Tech Res 5(1):220–231Google Scholar
  38. Ranjbar R, Naderi M, Omidvar H, Amoabediny G (2014) Gold recovery from copper anode slime by means of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs). Hydrometallurgy 143:54–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2014.01.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rüşen A, Topçu MA (2017a) Optimization of gold recovery from copper anode slime by acidic ionic liquid. Korean J Chem 26(4):607–610.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11814-017-0200-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rüşen A, Topçu M (2017b) The effect of EmimHSO4 (1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-İmidazolium Hydrogen Sulfate) on copper recovery from anode slime. AKU J Sci Eng 17(2):696–703.  https://doi.org/10.5578/fmbd.58610 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Safarzadeh MS, Moradkhani D, Ilkhci MO, Golshan NH (2008) Determination of the optimum conditions for the leaching of Cd-Ni residues from electrolytic zinc plant using statistical design of experiments. Sep Purif Technol 58:367–376.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2007.05.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shah ID, Khalafalla SE (1971) Kinetics and mechanism of the conversion of covellite (CuS) to digenite (Cu1.8S). Metall Trans 2(9):209–216.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02814907 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Syed S (2012) Recovery of gold from secondary sources–a review. Hydrometallurgy 115:30–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2011.12.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tan KG, Bedard PL (2013) Ammonia leach process for the treatment of copper refinery anode slimes containing high lead and low nickel. Can Metall Q 28(2):199–210.  https://doi.org/10.1179/cmq.1989.28.3199 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Taskinen P, Patana S, Kobylin P, Latostenmaa P (2014) Oxidation mechanism of copper selenide. High Temp Mater Proc 33(5):469–476.  https://doi.org/10.1515/htmp-2013-0097 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tian G, Jian LI, Hua YX (2010) Application of ionic liquids in hydrometallurgy of nonferrous metals. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc 20(3):513–520.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(09)60171-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tokkan D, Kuşlu S, Çalban T, Çolak S (2013) Optimization of silver removal from anode slime by microwave irradiation in ammonium thiosulfate solutions. Ind Eng Chem Res 52(29):9719–9725.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie400345g CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wang S, Cui W, Zhang G, Zhang L, Peng J (2017) Ultra fast ultrasound-assisted decopperization from copper anode slime. Ultrason Sonochem 36:20–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2016.11.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Whitehead JA, Lawrance GA, McCluskey A (2004) ‘Green’ leaching: recyclable and selective leaching of gold–bearing ore in an ionic liquid. Green Chem 6(7):313–315.  https://doi.org/10.1039/B406148A CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Whitehead JA, Zhang J, Pereira N, McCluskey A, Lawrance GA (2007) Application of 1-alkyl–3–methyl–imidazolium ionic liquids in the oxidative leaching of sulphidic copper, gold and silver ores. Hydrometallurgy 88(1):109–120.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2007.03.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Won JL, Mimura K, Isshiki M, Zhu Y, Jiang Q (2006) Brief review of oxidation kinetics of copper at 350 °C to 1050 °C. Metall Mater Trans A 37(4):1231–1237.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-006-1074-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Xu B, Yang Y, Li Q, Yin W, Jiang T, Li G (2016) Thiosulfate leaching of Au, Ag and Pd from a high Sn, Pb and Sb bearing decopperized anode slime. Hydrometallurgy 164:278–287.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2016.06.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yavuz Ö, Ziyadanoğulları R (2000) Recovery of gold and silver from copper anode slime. Sep Sci Tech 35(1):133–141.  https://doi.org/10.1081/SS-100100147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zarghami S, Kazemimoghadam M, Mohammadi T (2014) Cu(II) removal enhancement from aqueous solutions using ion-imprinted membrane technique. Chem Pap 68(6):809–815.  https://doi.org/10.2478/s11696-013-0509-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhang QB, Hua YX, Wang YT, Lu HJ, Zhang XY (2009) Effects of ionic liquid additive [BMIM]HSO4 on copper electrodeposition from acidic sulfate electrolyte. Hydrometallurgy 98(3–4):291–297.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2009.05.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhou XP, Wang YL, Meng FW, Fan XM, Qin SB (2008) Ionic liquid catalyst used in deep desulfuration of the coking benzene for producing sulfurless benzene. Chin J Chem 26(4):607–610.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cjoc.200890114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Material EngineeringKaramanoğlu Mehmetbey UniversityKaramanTurkey

Personalised recommendations