Optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and AFM study of heavy weathered surface of barium crystal glass
Glass samples of barium crystal glass (handmade and produced by automatic technology) were weathered at controlled conditions. On the weathered glass surface, the high number of corrosion products of approximate size of (5–10) μm was found. On the unweathered (native) glass surfaces, only small non-homogeneities were observed. The micro-Raman spectroscopy was used for study of corrosion products observed by the optical microscopy. It was shown that surface roughness determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used for the quantification of degree of weathering. The stoichiometric corrosion products can be identified by Raman spectroscopy by application of the proper spectral database. The proposed method of quantification of the degree of weathering was confirmed by the coincidence of AFM results obtained for two kinds of glass samples (handmade and automatic produced) with the same chemical composition but with the different character of macroscopic surface irregularities. On the other hand, the micro-Raman spectroscopy confirmed the same chemical character of weathering process in both cases.
KeywordsBarium crystal glass Glass weathering Surface roughness Corrosion products
This work was supported by the Slovak Grant Agency for Science under the Grant VEGA 2/0088/16. This publication was created in the frame of the project “Centre of excellence for ceramics, glass, and silicate materials” ITMS code 262 201 20056, based on the Operational Program Research and Development funded from the European Fund of Regional Development.
- Colomban P, Etcheverry M-P, Asquier M, Bounichou M, Tournié A (2005) Raman identification of ancient stained glasses and their degree of deterioration. J Raman Spectrosc 614–626. https://doi.org/10.1002/jrs.1495
- http://www.stjapan-usa.com (2017). Accessed 10 Apr 2018
- http://irug.org/search-spectral-database?reset=Reset (2017). Accessed 10 Apr 2018
- http://rruff.info/ (2017). Accessed 10 Apr 2018
- International Standard Ref. No. ISO 719-1985 (E) (2017)Google Scholar
- Merlino S (1983) Okenite, Ca10Si18O46 18H2O: the first example of a chain sheet silicate. Am Miner 68:614–622Google Scholar
- Papadopoulos N, Drosou CA (2012) Influence of weather conditions on glass properties. J Univ Chem Technol Metall 47:429–439Google Scholar
- Petrušková V, Vrábel P, Šimurka P, Šajgalík P, Maryška M (2007) Surface damage of two different wineglasses during dishwashing process. Ceramics Silikáty 51:57–66Google Scholar
- Petrušková V, Vrábel P, Liška M, Galusková D, Mišíková L, Šajgalík P (2009) Corrosion of barium and barium free crystal glass in a flow-through reactor. Glass Technol Eur J Glass Sci Technol Part A 50:258–268Google Scholar
- Rebroš M, Jamnický M, Lokaj J, Kadlečíková M (2006) Weathering of the crystal glass in moist and polluted atmospheres. Ceramics Silikáty 50:44–50Google Scholar
- Wang C, Häfner W, Krausch G, Rädlein E, Tratzky S, Schramm M, Martinek K-P (2004) Study of surface changes on industrial glasses with AFM, FE-SEM, EDX, SNMS and LM: part 1. Glass skin and corrosion. Glass Sci Technol 77:103–110 (EID: 2-s2.0-3142669093) Google Scholar
- Woelffel W, Claireaux C, Burov E, Barthel É, Chopinet M-H, Gouillart E, Toplis MJ, Shukla A, Biscaras J (2015) Analysis of soda-lime glasses using non-negative matrix factor deconvolution of Raman spectra. J Non Cryst Solids 428:121–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2015.08.016 (2017) CrossRefGoogle Scholar