Chemical Papers

, Volume 72, Issue 9, pp 2289–2300 | Cite as

Electrochemical investigation of gel polymer electrolytes based on poly(methyl methacrylate) and dimethylacetamide for application in Li-ion batteries

  • Mohammad Faridi
  • Leila Naji
  • Sholeh Kazemifard
  • Nasim Pourali
Original Paper


In the present work, gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) were prepared using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) and dimethylacetamide as a plasticizer. Solution-casting technique was used to fabricate GPEs containing different weight percentage of PMMA. The degree of crystallinity of GPE samples was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was applied to study the level of interactions between lithium salt and PMMA in the prepared GPEs. Electrochemical properties were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry and DC polarization techniques. Lithium ion conductivity of GPEs was determined by calculating the bulk resistance of polymer electrolytes from Nyquist plot. Increasing PMMA content of GPEs resulted in an improvement in the electrochemical potential window from 4.2 to 4.5 V. The highest lithium transference number (0.42) and also the best electrochemical properties were obtained for GPE containing 0.75 M LiClO4 and 10 wt% PMMA. Scanning electron microscopy images of the optimized GPE showed a porous and heterogeneous surface structure which is desirable for application in Li-ion batteries.


Gel polymer electrolyte Lithium ion battery Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy Ionic conductivity 



The authors would like to express their gratitude to analytical chemistry lab of Amirkabir University of Technology.


  1. Chen Z, Wang HH, Vissers DR et al (2008) Kinetic investigation of the solvation of lithium salts in siloxanes. J Phys Chem C 112:2210–2214. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cheng H, Zhu C, Huang B et al (2007) Synthesis and electrochemical characterization f PEO-based polymer electrolytes with room temperature ionic liquids. Electrochim Acta 52:5789–5794. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Deka M, Kumar A (2010a) Enhanced electrical and electrochemical properties of PMMA-clay nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes. Electrochim Acta 55:1836–1842. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Deka M, Kumar A (2010b) Enhanced ionic conductivity in novel nanocomposite gel polymer electrolyte based on intercalation of PMMA into layered LiV 3O 8. J Solid State Electrochem 14:1649–1656. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. He T, Zhou Z, Xu W et al (2009) Preparation and photocatalysis of TiO2-fluoropolymer electrospun fiber nanocomposites. Polym (Guildf) 50:3031–3036. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Isken P, Winter M, Passerini S, Lex-Balducci A (2013) Methacrylate based gel polymer electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources 225:157–162. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Karmakar A, Ghosh A (2011) Poly ethylene oxide (PEO)-LiI polymer electrolytes embedded with CdO nanoparticles. J Nanoparticle Res 13:2989–2996. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kovač M, Gaberšček M, Grdadolnik J (1998) The effect of plasticizer on the microstructural and electrochemical properties of a (PEO)nLiAl(SO3Cl)4 system. Electrochim Acta 44:863–870. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kufian MZ, Aziz MF, Shukur MF et al (2012) PMMA-LiBOB gel electrolyte for application in lithium ion batteries. Solid State Ionics 208:36–42. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Li J, Yuan CF, Guo ZH et al (2012a) Limiting factors for low-temperature performance of electrolytes in LiFePO 4/Li and graphite/Li half cells. Electrochim Acta 59:69–74. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Li W-L, Gao Y-M, Wang S-M (2012b) Gel polymer electrolyte with semi-IPN fabric for polymer lithium-ion battery. J Appl Polym Sci 125:1027–1032. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lin Y, Li J, Lai Y et al (2013) A wider temperature range polymer electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. RSC Adv 3:10722. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ma T, Cui Z, Wu Y et al (2013) Preparation of PVDF based blend microporous membranes for lithium ion batteries by thermally induced phase separation: I. Effect of PMMA on the membrane formation process and the properties. J Membr Sci 444:213–222. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mahendran O, Chen SY, Chen-Yang YW et al (2005) Investigations on PMMA-PVdF polymer blend electrolyte with esters of dibenzoic acids as plasticizers. Ionics (Kiel) 11:251–258. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Novák P, Inganäs O, Bjorklund R (1987) Cycling behaviour of the polypyrrole-polyethylene oxide composite electrode. J Power Sources 21:17–24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Oh B, Amine K (2004) Evaluation of macromonomer-based gel polymer electrolyte for high-power applications. Solid State Ionics 175(1–4):785–788.
  17. Orbakh D (1999) Nonaqueous electrochemistry. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  18. Park J-K (ed) (2012) Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  19. Rajendran SOM (2001) Experimental investigations on plasticized PMMA/PVA polymer blend electrolytes. Ionics 7:463–468. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rajendran S, Ramesh Prabhu M (2010) Effect of different plasticizer on structural and electrical properties of PEMA-based polymer electrolytes. J Appl Electrochem 40:327–332. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rajendran S, Sivakumar P, Babu RS (2006) Investigation on poly (vinylidene fluoride) based gel polymer electrolytes. Bull Mater Sci 29:673–678Google Scholar
  22. Rajendran S, Babu RS, Sivakumar P (2008) Investigations on PVC/PAN composite polymer electrolytes. J Membr Sci 315:67–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ramesh S, Liew C-W, Ramesh K (2011) Evaluation and investigation on the effect of ionic liquid onto PMMA-PVC gel polymer blend electrolytes. J Non Cryst Solids 357:2132–2138. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sharma JP, Sekhon SS (2007) Nanodispersed polymer gel electrolytes: conductivity modification with the addition of PMMA and fumed silica. Solid State Ionics 178:439–445. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shi J, Fang L, Li H et al (2013) Improved thermal and electrochemical performances of PMMA modi fied PE separator skeleton prepared via dopamine-initiated ATRP for lithium ion batteries. J Membr Sci 437:160–168. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Shukla N, Thakur AK (2009) Role of salt concentration on conductivity optimization and structural phase separation in a solid polymer electrolyte based on PMMA-LiClO4. Ionics (Kiel) 15:357–367. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sil A, Sharma R, Ray S (2015) Mechanical and thermal characteristics of PMMA-based nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes with CNFs dispersion. Surf Coatings Technol 271:201–206. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stephan AM (2006) Review on gel polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries. Eur Polym J 42:21–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Subramania A, Sundaram NTK, Kumar GV (2006) Structural and electrochemical properties of micro-porous polymer blend electrolytes based on PVdF-co-HFP-PAN for Li-ion battery applications. J Power Sources 153:177–182. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tasaki K, Goldberg A, Winter M (2011) On the difference in cycling behaviors of lithium-ion battery cell between the ethylene carbonate- and propylene carbonate-based electrolytes. Electrochim Acta 56:10424–10435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Walkowiak M, Schroeder G, Gierczyk B et al (2007) New lithium ion conducting polymer electrolytes based on polysiloxane grafted with Si-tripodand centers. Electrochem Commun 9:1558–1562. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang Q, Song WL, Fan LZ, Song Y (2015) Facile fabrication of polyacrylonitrile/alumina composite membranes based on triethylene glycol diacetate-2-propenoic acid butyl ester gel polymer electrolytes for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries. J Membr Sci 486:21–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhai W, Zhu HJ, Wang L et al (2014) Study of PVDF-HFP/PMMA blended micro-porous gel polymer electrolyte incorporating ionic liquid [BMIM]BF4 for Lithium ion batteries. Electrochim Acta 133:623–630. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Faridi
    • 1
  • Leila Naji
    • 1
  • Sholeh Kazemifard
    • 1
  • Nasim Pourali
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryAmirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations