Quinoa flour was used as base for designing new gluten free bread formulation. The proximate composition, physical, functional and thermo-mechanical properties of quinoa flour were first investigated, and the effect of addition of different types of starch (native and modified starch from corn and potato), and of different dairy proteins (whey proteins and sodium caseinate) on the properties of quinoa flour and on bread quality were further studied. The addition of potato starch to quinoa flour caused higher increase of starch gelatinization and breakdown compared to corn starch. Moreover, when corn starch was incorporated a delay in the pasting process was registered. The dairy proteins influenced in different manner the thermo-mechanical properties of dough; whey proteins decreased dough resistance to mechanical constrains, while sodium caseinate increased it. The bread-making test indicated that the addition of corn or potato starch to the quinoa flour allows slight improvement of the specific volume of the breads. Further improvement of the bread specific volume and crumb firmness was observed when combining sodium caseinate with corn starch. In case of the bread samples with modified starch from corn, the incorporation of either whey proteins or sodium caseinate resulted in improved specific volume and crumb firmness.
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The authors thank to Mr Vitănescu Maricel for supplying the quinoa seed.
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Aprodu, I., Banu, I. Effect of starch and dairy proteins on the gluten free bread formulation based on quinoa. Food Measure (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-021-00826-9
- Quinoa flour
- Modified starch
- Dairy proteins
- Thermo-mechanical properties