Semi‐volume gluten‐free bread: effect of guar gum, sodium caseinate and transglutaminase enzyme on the quality parameters


Nowadays, celiac disease is known as an autoimmune disorder, the only cure for whom is consuming gluten-free foods. In this study, potato flour (Konbak variety) was used as a gluten-free resource in bread baking and texture improvement. Nevertheless, industrial challenges and strategies to facilitate formulation development still exist in terms of gluten-free bread characteristics such as texture, flavor, and extension of the products shelf life. As additives, guar gum, sodium caseinate and microbial transglutaminase enzyme at four levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5) were used. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to evaluate type and level of additives in three bread formulations. The multivariate analysis allowed us to recognize different effect of additives from each other. The results showed that these additives increased the porosity, adhesion and elongation of the treatments and reduced the amount of a*, L* and b* dye component in the bread crust. Moreover, they reduced the specific volume, firmness of the tissue, adhesion and wrinkle of the final product. Besides that, all optimal formulation showed an acceptability quality level, indicating the potential to be used on an industrial scale.

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Correspondence to Marzieh Bolandi or Majid Arabameri.

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Moradi, M., Bolandi, M., Arabameri, M. et al. Semi‐volume gluten‐free bread: effect of guar gum, sodium caseinate and transglutaminase enzyme on the quality parameters. Food Measure (2021).

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  • Guar gum
  • Microbial transglutaminase enzyme
  • Potato flour
  • Sodium caseinate
  • PCA