Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of Pistacia vera var. Sarakhs hull and kernel extracts: the influence of different solvents

  • Seyedeh Faezeh Taghizadeh
  • Ramin Rezaee
  • Gholamhossein Davarynejad
  • Gholamreza Karimi
  • Seyed Hossein Nemati
  • Javad Asili
Original Paper
  • 3 Downloads

Abstract

Iran is among the main exporters of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Thus, evaluation of phytochemical properties of this product is of crucial importance. In this study, effects of three types of solvents namely, polar protic solvents (i.e. ultrapure water, methanol and ethanol), polar aprotic solvents (i.e. acetone and ethyl acetate) and a non-polar solvent (i.e. hexane), on total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and total proanthocyanidins extractability as well as antioxidant activity (as evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay) of P. vera var. Sarakhs hull and kernel, were investigated. High extraction yields were observed following utilization of less polar solvents (43.14 and 34.19% for hull and kernel, respectively). There were significant differences among solvents in terms of the amount of antioxidant compounds extracted. Ethanolic hull and kernel extract showed the maximum amounts of total phenols (113.21 and 169.53 mg of gallic acid equivalent per g of dried plant, respectively), total flavonoids (87.03 and 139.47 mg of quercetin equivalent per g of dried plant, respectively) and total proanthocyanidins (110.60 and 150.32 mg of catechin equivalents per g of dried plant, respectively) followed by methanol > ultrapure water > ethyl acetate > hexane. Assessment of antioxidant activity showed that the ethanol extract of hull and kernel had the least IC50 (3.04 and 6.8 µg/ml, respectively) and the greatest value when assessed by FRAP (8.80 and 5.59 mmol/g, respectively). The results suggested that P. vera var. Sarakhs hull and kernel extract can be regarded as a promising alternative for synthetic antioxidants.

Keyword

Anacardiaceae Antioxidant capacity DPPH Phenolic compounds FRAP Pistacia vera 

Abbreviations

DPPH

1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil

BHT

Butylhydroxytoluene

FRAP

Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay

TPC

Total phenolic content

TFC

Total flavonoid content

TPrAC

Total proanthocyanidin content

HCl

Hydrogen chloride

TPTZ

2, 4, 6-Tris (2-pyridyl)-5-triazine

P′

Polarity index

Xe

Proton acceptor parameter

Xd

Proton donor parameter

Xn

Strong dipole parameter

η

Viscosity at 20

Pv

Vapor pressure at 20° mm Hg

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Faculty of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seyedeh Faezeh Taghizadeh
    • 1
  • Ramin Rezaee
    • 2
  • Gholamhossein Davarynejad
    • 1
  • Gholamreza Karimi
    • 3
    • 4
  • Seyed Hossein Nemati
    • 1
  • Javad Asili
    • 5
  1. 1.Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture and Landscape EngineeringFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIslamic Republic of Iran
  2. 2.Clinical Research Unit, Faculty of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIslamic Republic of Iran
  3. 3.Pharmaceutical Research Center, Institute of Pharmaceutical TechnologyMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIslamic Republic of Iran
  4. 4.School of PharmacyMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIslamic Republic of Iran
  5. 5.Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of PharmacognosyMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIslamic Republic of Iran

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