Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 1695–1706 | Cite as

Distribution of odour compounds, antinutritional factors and selected storage stability parameters in soymilk as affected by differences in roasting temperatures and times

  • Willard Burton Navicha
  • Yufei Hua
  • Kingsley Masamba
  • Xiangzhen Kong
  • Caimeng Zhang
Original Paper


Compared to other processing methods used in soybeans, roasting has received limited attention in soymilk processing despite its known potential role in improving soymilk quality. In this study, the effect of soybean roasting at 110 °C for 20 to 100 min and at 120 °C for 20 min on the distribution of soymilk volatile compounds, antinutritional factors and storage parameters: pH, total titratable acidity, emulsion stability (ES) and rheology were investigated and comparison was made with the control sample prepared from soybeans which were not roasted. Results have shown that roasting soybeans improved soymilk properties by significantly decreasing the levels of each of the following objectionable volatile compounds: hexanal, 1-hexanol and Furan, 2-pentyl respectively from 43.58% to a minimum level of 17.95, 11.67–2.28 and 4.09–0.82%. In addition, the levels of trypsin inhibitors were considerably decreased from 5.86 to 1.91 mg/gm thus reducing the overall heat treatment time of the soymilk from 19.4 to 9.9 min. ES increased significantly from 23.97 to 102.84 min while viscosity at the shear rates of 0.1 and 1.0/s decreased respectively from 3.00 and 0.73 to 0.27 and 0.03 Pa s. Furthermore, all the samples were found with the behavior flow indices values of less than unity (0.16–0.38 respectively) suggesting that they were pseudo plastics. From the results, it can therefore be concluded that careful selection and application of soybean roasting parameters in terms of temperature and time can be a useful strategy in improving the quality of soymilk.


Soybean roasting Soymilk Objectionable volatile compounds Antinutritional factors Emulsion stability Viscosity 



This work was supported by Grant(s) from the Natural Sciences Foundation of China (31171724), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (JUSRP51501) and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (SRFDP 20130093110008).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing financial interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Willard Burton Navicha
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yufei Hua
    • 1
  • Kingsley Masamba
    • 3
  • Xiangzhen Kong
    • 1
  • Caimeng Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and TechnologyJiangnan UniversityWuxiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Human EcologyDomasi College of EducationZombaMalawi
  3. 3.Department of Food Science and TechnologyLilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesLilongweMalawi

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