Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 1669–1677 | Cite as

Development and quality characterization of liquid Kashk by incorporating psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) hydrocolloid gel

  • Sahar Amini
  • Shima Yousefi
  • Ali Akbarian Moghari
Original Paper


The functionality of psyllium hydrocolloid gel (PHG, 0.1–0.75%) to improve physicochemical (pH, syneresis, physical stability and lightness), rheological (viscosity and flow behavior), microstructural and sensorial characteristics of an ethnic acid-fermented dairy product “Kashk” with different contents of dried Kashk powder (DKP, 15–25%) was investigated. Results showed the low-viscous liquid Kashks containing 0.1% PHG at all DKP levels had the highest syneresis, instability and lightness amounts. Scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction particle size analysis exhibited the increasing PHG content by 0.5% reduced aggregated particles size in a uniform monomodal distribution, whereas the weaker interaction of polysaccharide-casein at 0.75% PHG led to an increase in the number of unadsorbed polysaccharides. A highly negative correlation was also found between the viscosity and phase separation percentage, and between the particles size and overall acceptability sensory attribute. According to the quality evaluations, the best formulation was composed of 25% DKP and 0.5% PHG.


Kashk Psyllium gum Physical stability Rheology Microstructure 


  1. 1.
    N. Mollakhalili Meybodi, M. Tajabadi Ebrahimi, A.M. Mortazavian, Ethnic fermented foods and beverage of Iran. In: JP Tamang Ethnic fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of Asia (Springer, New York, 2016), pp. 309–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Soltani, N. Güzeler, The production and quality properties of liquid kashks. GIDA 38, 1–7 (2013)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Joudaki, M. Mousavi, M. Safari, S.H. Razavi, Z. Emam-Djomeh, S.M.T. Gharibzahedi, Scrutinizing the different pectin types on stability of an Iranian traditional drink “Doogh”. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 60, 375–382 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. Forghani, M. Eskandari, D.H. Oh, Application of slightly acidic electrolyzed water and ultrasound for microbial decontamination of kashk. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 24, 1011–1016 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S.G. Shiroodi, M.A. Mohammadifar, E. Ghorbani Gorji, H. Ezzatpanah, N. Zohouri, Influence of gum tragacanth on the physicochemical and rheological properties of kashk. J. Dairy Res. 79, 93–101 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Joudaki, M. Mousavi, M. Safari, S.H. Razavi, Z. Emam-Djomeh, S.M.T. Gharibzahedi, A practical optimization on salt/high-methoxyl pectin interaction to design a stable formulation for Doogh. Carbohydr. Polym. 97, 376–383 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Ahmadi, A. Kalbasi-Ashtari, S.M.T. Gharibzahedi, Physical properties of psyllium seed. Int. Agrophys. 26, 91–93 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M.H. Fischer, Y. Yu, G.R. Gray, J. Ralph, L. Andersond, J.A. Marlett, The gel-forming polysaccharide of psyllium husk (Plantago ovata Forsk). Carbohydr. Res. 339, 2009–2017 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    F.S. Hashemi, S.M.T. Gharibzahedi, H. Hamishehkar, The effect of high methoxyl pectin and gellan including psyllium gel on Doogh stability. RSC Adv. 5, 42346–42353 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Elli, D. Cattivelli, S. Soldi, M. Bonatti, L. Morelli, Evaluation of prebiotic potential of refined psyllium (Plantago ovata) fiber in healthy women. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 42, S174–S176 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. Ahmadi, A. Kalbasi-Ashtari, A. Oromiehie, M.S. Yarmand, F. Jahandideh, Development and characterization of a novel biodegradable edible film obtained from psyllium seed (Plantago ovata Forsk). J. Food Eng. 109, 745–751 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S.M.T. Gharibzahedi, S.H. Razavi, S.M. Mousavi, Psyllium husk gum: an attractive carbohydrate biopolymer for the production of stable canthaxanthin emulsions. Carbohydr. Polym. 92, 2002–2011 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S.S. Amiri Aghdaei, M. Aalami, R. Rezaei, Influence of fleawort seed hydrocolloid on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low fat yoghurt. Iran. Food Sci. Technol. Res. J. 6, 201–209 (2011)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Z.S. Ladjevardi, S.M.T. Gharibzahedi, M. Mousavi, Development of a stable low-fat yogurt gel using functionality of psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) husk gum. Carbohydr. Polym. 125, 272–280 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S.S. Amiri Aghdaei, M. Aalami, R. Rezaei, M. Dadpour, M. Khomeiri, Effect of Isfarzeh and basil seed mucilages on physicochemical, rheological and sensory properties of ice cream. J. Res. Innov. Food Sci. Technol. 1, 23–38 (2011)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Keogh, B. O’Kennedy, Rheology of stirred yogurt as affected by added milk fat, protein and hydrocolloids. J. Food Sci. 63, 108–112 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    S.M.T. Gharibzahedi, H. Rostami, S. Yousefi, Formulation design and physicochemical stability characterization of nanoemulsions of nettle (Urtica Dioica) essential oil using a model-based methodology. J. Food Process. Preserv. 39, 2947–2958 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Z. Mashak, H. Sodagari, B. Mashak, S. Niknafs, Chemical and microbial properties of two Iranian traditional fermented cereal-dairy based foods: Kashk-e Zard and Tarkhineh. Int. J. Biosci. 4, 124–133 (2014)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S.M.T. Gharibzahedi, S.H. Razavi, S.M. Mousavi, Kinetic analysis and mathematical modeling of cell growth and canthaxanthin biosynthesis by Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 on waste molasses hydrolysate. RSC Adv. 3, 23495–23502 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Ünal, S. Metin, N.D. Işıklı, Use of response surface methodology to describe the combined effect of storage time, locust bean gum and dry matter of milk on the physical properties of low-fat set yoghurt. Int. Dairy J. 13, 909–916 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Q. Guo, S.W. Cui, Q. Wang, J.C. Young, Fractionation and physicochemical characterization of psyllium gum. Carbohydr. Polym. 73, 35–43 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Q. Guo, S.W. Cui, Q. Wang, H.D. Goff, A. Smith, Microstructure and rheological properties of psyllium polysaccharide gel. Food Hydrocolloid. 23, 1542–1547 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    N. Srisuvor, N. Chinprahast, C. Prakitchaiwattana, S. Subhimaros, Effects of inulin and polydextrose on physicochemical and sensory properties of low-fat set yoghurt with probiotic-cultured banana purée. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 51, 30–36 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J.K. An, W.B. Wang, A.Q. Wang, Preparation and swelling properties of a pH-sensitive superabsorbent hydrogel based on psyllium gum. Starch 62, 501–507 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Sonne, M. Busch-Stockfisch, J. Weiss, J. Hinrichs, Improved mapping of in-mouth creaminess of semi-solid dairy products by combining rheology, particle size, and tribology data. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 59, 342–347 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A.L.B. Penna, K. Sivieri, M.N. Oliviera, Relation between quality andrheological properties of lactic beverages. J. Food Eng. 49, 7–13 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    V. Bottazi, F. Dellaglio, Acetaldehyde and diacetyl production by Streptococcus thermophilus and other lactic streptococci. J. Dairy Rex. 34, 109–112 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    F.G. Avci, D. Huccetogullari, N. Azbar, The effects of cell recycling on the production of 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumonia. Bioprocess. Biosyst. Eng. 37, 513–519 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    S.M.T. Gharibzahedi, S.H. Razavi, S.M. Mousavi, Optimization and kinetic studies on the production of intracellular canthaxanthin in fed-batch cultures of Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1. Qual. Assur. Saf. Crop. Food. 7, 757–767 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sahar Amini
    • 1
  • Shima Yousefi
    • 2
  • Ali Akbarian Moghari
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences & TechnologyIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.College of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.R&D DivisionIran Dairy Industries Co. (Pegah)TehranIran

Personalised recommendations