Extraction and functional characterization of isolated proteins from Aleppo pine seeds (Pinus halepensis Mill.)
The aim of this work was to extract and characterize Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis mill.) proteins. Aleppo pine protein isolate (APPI) was isolated from defatted flour using alkaline solution and isoelectric precipitation. Protein solubility, emulsion capacity and stability, foaming capacity and stability, thermal properties, oil and water absorption capacity and gelling ability were evaluated. APPI was most soluble at pH 10 (47.36%) and pH 2 (44.38%), respectively and least soluble at pH 4 (10.21%). The highest emulsion capacity was detected at pH 2 with 220 mL of oil emulsified and emulsion was completely stable at pH 2, 8 and 10 for up to 48 h at 23.3 °C. APPI had a foaming capacity of 99 and 101% at pH 2 and 10, respectively and foaming stability of more than 120 min at 23.3 °C. Oil absorption capacity and water absorption capacity were 3.10 and 3.90 g/g, respectively.
KeywordsAleppo pine seed protein Isolation Functional properties
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interest.
This study does not involve any human or animal testing.
Written informed consent was obtained from all study participants.
- 1.H.A. Al-Kahtani, A.A. Abou-arab, Comparison of physical,chemical and functional properties of moringa peregrina (al-yassar or al-ban) and soy bean properties. Cereal Chem. 70, 619–626 (1993)Google Scholar
- 2.AOAC Methods, Official Methods of Analysis. (Association of the Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington. VA, 2005)Google Scholar
- 3.E. Bagci, Y. Karaagacli, 2004. Fatty acid and tocochromanol patterns of Turkish pines. Acta Biol. Cracov. 46, 95–100Google Scholar
- 6.S. Cheikh-Rouhoua, S. Besbesa, G. Lognayb, C. Bleckerc, C. Deroannec, H. Attiaa, Sterol composition of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) and Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) seed oils. J. Food Compos. Anal. 12, 407–415 (2008)Google Scholar
- 7.S. Damodaran, K.L. Parkin, O.R. Fennema, Food Chemistry, 4th edn. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2007)Google Scholar
- 10.U.V. Garba, S. Kaur, Protein isolates: production, functional properties and application. Int. J. Curr. Res. Rev. 6, 35–45 (2014)Google Scholar
- 14.V.A. Jideani, Functional Properties of Soybean Food Ingredients in Food Systems, Soybean: Biochemistry, Chemistry and Physiology, Prof. Tzi-Bun Ng. (InTech, India, 2011) http://www.intechopen.com/books/soybean-biochemistry-chemistry-and-physiology/functional-properties-of-soybean-food-ingredients-in-food-systems
- 20.D.H.G.P. Pelegrine, M.T.M.S. Gomes, Whey proteins solubility curves at several temperatures values. Rev. Ciênc. Exat. Nat. 30, 17–25 (2008)Google Scholar
- 21.J. Porras-Saavedra, N. Guemez-Vera, J.L. Montañez-Soto, M.C. Fernández-Martínez, J. Yañez-Fernández, Comparative study of functional properties of protein isolates obtained from three Lupinus species. Adv. Biores. 4, 106–116 (2013)Google Scholar
- 25.S.K. Tukan, K. Al-Ismail, R. Ajo, M. Al-Dabbas, Seeds and seed oil compositions of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) grown in Jordan. La Riv Ital Delle Sostanze Grass XC, 87–93 (2013)Google Scholar