Extraction and functional characterization of isolated proteins from Aleppo pine seeds (Pinus halepensis Mill.)

  • Khalid Al-Ismail
  • Nehaya Al-Assoly
  • Mohammed Saleh
Original Paper


The aim of this work was to extract and characterize Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis mill.) proteins. Aleppo pine protein isolate (APPI) was isolated from defatted flour using alkaline solution and isoelectric precipitation. Protein solubility, emulsion capacity and stability, foaming capacity and stability, thermal properties, oil and water absorption capacity and gelling ability were evaluated. APPI was most soluble at pH 10 (47.36%) and pH 2 (44.38%), respectively and least soluble at pH 4 (10.21%). The highest emulsion capacity was detected at pH 2 with 220 mL of oil emulsified and emulsion was completely stable at pH 2, 8 and 10 for up to 48 h at 23.3 °C. APPI had a foaming capacity of 99 and 101% at pH 2 and 10, respectively and foaming stability of more than 120 min at 23.3 °C. Oil absorption capacity and water absorption capacity were 3.10 and 3.90 g/g, respectively.


Aleppo pine seed protein Isolation Functional properties 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study does not involve any human or animal testing.

Informed consent

Written informed consent was obtained from all study participants.


  1. 1.
    H.A. Al-Kahtani, A.A. Abou-arab, Comparison of physical,chemical and functional properties of moringa peregrina (al-yassar or al-ban) and soy bean properties. Cereal Chem. 70, 619–626 (1993)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    AOAC Methods, Official Methods of Analysis. (Association of the Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington. VA, 2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. Bagci, Y. Karaagacli, 2004. Fatty acid and tocochromanol patterns of Turkish pines. Acta Biol. Cracov. 46, 95–100Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. Beuchat, Functional and electrophoretic characteristics of succinylated peanut flour protein. J. Agric. Food Chem. 25, 258–263 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.S. Butt, R. Batool, Nutritional and functional properties of some promising legumes protein isolates. Pak. J. Nutr. 9, 373–379 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Cheikh-Rouhoua, S. Besbesa, G. Lognayb, C. Bleckerc, C. Deroannec, H. Attiaa, Sterol composition of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) and Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) seed oils. J. Food Compos. Anal. 12, 407–415 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Damodaran, K.L. Parkin, O.R. Fennema, Food Chemistry, 4th edn. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. Dipak, K. Kumar, Functional properties of rapeseed protein products with varying phytic acid content. J. Agric. Food Chem. 34, 775–780 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Feyzi, M. Varidi, F. Zare, M.J. Varidi, Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed protein isolate: extraction optimization, amino acid composition, thermo and functional properties. J. Sci. Food Agric. 95, 3165–3176 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    U.V. Garba, S. Kaur, Protein isolates: production, functional properties and application. Int. J. Curr. Res. Rev. 6, 35–45 (2014)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.T. Gomes, D.H.G. Pelegrine, Solubility of egg white proteins: effect of pH and temperature. Int. J. Food Eng. 8, 875–886 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. González-Pérez, J.M. Vereijken, Sunflower proteins: overview of their physicochemical, structural and functional properties. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87, 2173–2191 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.A. Heywood, D.J. Myers, T.B. Bailey, L.A. Johnson, Functional properties of low-fat soy flour produced by an extrusion-expelling system. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 79, 1249–1253 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    V.A. Jideani, Functional Properties of Soybean Food Ingredients in Food Systems, Soybean: Biochemistry, Chemistry and Physiology, Prof. Tzi-Bun Ng. (InTech, India, 2011)
  15. 15.
    P.J. Kanu, Z. Kerui, Z.H. Ming, Q. Haifeng, J.B. Kanu, Z. Kexue, Sesame protein: functional properties of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) protein isolate as influenced by pH, temperature, time and ratio of flour to water during its production. Asian J. Biochem. 2, 289–301 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    X. Mao, Y. Hua, Composition, structure and functional properties of protein concentrates and isolates produced from walnut (Juglans regia L.). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, 1561–1581 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A.A. Mariod, S.F. Fathy, M. Ismail, Preparation and characterization of protein concentrates from defatted kenaf seed. Food. Chem. 123(71), 747–752 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    W. Marshall, T. Duston, Z. Carpenter, C. Smith, A simple method of emulsion endpoint determination. J. Food Sci. 40, 896–900 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y. Mine, Recent advances in the understanding of egg white protein functionality. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 6, 225–232 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D.H.G.P. Pelegrine, M.T.M.S. Gomes, Whey proteins solubility curves at several temperatures values. Rev. Ciênc. Exat. Nat. 30, 17–25 (2008)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Porras-Saavedra, N. Guemez-Vera, J.L. Montañez-Soto, M.C. Fernández-Martínez, J. Yañez-Fernández, Comparative study of functional properties of protein isolates obtained from three Lupinus species. Adv. Biores. 4, 106–116 (2013)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    D.D.M. Ragab, E.E. Babiker, A.H. Eltinay, Fractionation, solubility and functional properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) proteins as affected by pH and/or salt concentration. Food Chem. 84, 207–212 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A.S. Rodriguez, A. Martinez-Ayala, F. Millan, G. And Davila-Ortiz, Composition and functional properties of lupinus campestris protein isolates. Plant Foods Human Nutr. 60, 99–107 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Sosulski, F. McCurdy, Functionality of flours, protein fractions and isolates from field peas and faba bean. J. Food Sci. 52, 1010–1014 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S.K. Tukan, K. Al-Ismail, R. Ajo, M. Al-Dabbas, Seeds and seed oil compositions of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) grown in Jordan. La Riv Ital Delle Sostanze Grass XC, 87–93 (2013)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    P.Y.Y. Wong, D.D. Kitts, A comparison of the buttermilk solids functional properties to nonfat dried milk, soy protein isolate, dried egg white, and egg yolk powders. J. Dairy Sci. 3, 746–754 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Xiaying, H. Yofei, Composition, structure and functional properties of protein concentrates and isolates produced from walnut (Juglans regia L.). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, 1561–1581 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    H.G. Zheng, X.Q. Yang, C.H. Tang, L. Li, I. Ahmad, Preparation of soluble soybean protein aggregates (SSPA) from insoluble soybean protein concentrates (SPC) and its functional properties. Food Res. Int. 41, 154–164 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, Faculty of AgricultureThe University of JordanAmmanJordan

Personalised recommendations