Evolutionary Biology

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 96–104 | Cite as

Maternal Testosterone and Offspring Sex-Ratio in Birds and Mammals: A Meta-Analysis

  • Thomas MerklingEmail author
  • Shinichi Nakagawa
  • Malgorzata Lagisz
  • Lisa E. Schwanz
Research Article


Sex allocation theory predicts that parents should bias offspring sex to maximize their fitness in a given context. Quantifying the fitness benefits of offspring sex-ratio biases would be facilitated by a better knowledge of their underlying mechanism(s) and associated costs. The hypothesis that steroid hormones are involved in sex determination has gained in popularity recently. Being influenced by external stimuli and involved in a range of physiological processes, they could be a ubiquitous mediator of environmental conditions influencing sex-ratio with low fitness costs. Previous studies indicated that higher maternal testosterone levels led to the overproduction of sons around conception in both birds and mammals. We conducted a systematic review (including meta-analysis) of these studies and, as predicted, we found a weak positive and significant overall effect of maternal testosterone on the proportion of sons. Neither taxa, nor the type of study (experimental/observational), or the timing of timing testosterone manipulation/measure were significant predictors of offspring sex-ratio, which may be explained by low statistical power in addition to low variability between effect sizes. Our meta-analysis provides evidence for a general positive influence of maternal testosterone around conception on the proportion of sons across birds and mammals, although less confidently so for the latter. It begs for more large-scale experimental studies, especially on mammals, and ideally in the wild. It may also have some important consequences for the poultry industry.


Differential mortality Poultry Sex ratio Proximate mechanism Sex determination Steroids 



We are grateful to Tom Pike, Dorit Shargil, Joanna Setchell, Lee Koren and Allison Pavitt for responding to requests for additional data. We also thank three anonymous reviewers for useful comments on a previous version of the manuscript. T. M. was supported by an Endeavour Research Fellowship. S. N. is funded by an ARC Future Fellowship (FT130100268).

Data Accessibility

All data and code are available on the Open Science Framework (

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11692_2017_9432_MOESM1_ESM.docx (151 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 151 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Evolution & Ecology Research CentreUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

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