Brain Imaging and Behavior

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 430–443 | Cite as

Altered modular organization of intrinsic brain functional networks in patients with Parkinson’s disease

  • Qing Ma
  • Biao Huang
  • Jinhui Wang
  • Carol Seger
  • Wanqun Yang
  • Changhong Li
  • Junjing Wang
  • Jieying Feng
  • Ling Weng
  • Wenjie Jiang
  • Ruiwang Huang
Original Research


Although previous studies reported altered topology of brain functional networks in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), the modular organization of brain functional networks in PD patients remains largely unknown. Using the resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) and graph theory, we examined the modular organization of brain functional networks in 32 unmedicated patients with early-to-mid motor stage PD and 31 healthy controls. Compared to the controls, the PD patients tended to show decreased integrity and segregation, both within and between modules. This was inferred by significantly increased intra-modular characteristic path length (L p) within four modules: mPFC, SN, SMN, and FPN, decreased inter-modular functional connectivity (FC) between mPFC and SN, SMN, and VN, and decreased intra-modular clustering in the PD patients. Intra-modular characteristic path length within the mPFC showed significantly positive correlation with general cognitive ability in the PD group. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that FC between mPFC and SN had the highest significant accuracy in differentiating the patients from the controls. Our findings may provide new insight in understanding the pathological changes that underlie impairment in cognition and movement in Parkinson’s disease.


Modularity Graph theory Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) Salience network (SN) 



Medial prefrontal cortex


Salience network


Fronto-parietal network


Somatomotor network


Visual network


Posterior cerebellum


Default mode network


Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant numbers: 81271548, 81271560, 81371535, 81428013, and 81471654), and Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. LZ13C090001).

Conflict of interest

All of the authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

11682_2016_9524_MOESM1_ESM.doc (2.9 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 2.88 MB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qing Ma
    • 1
  • Biao Huang
    • 2
  • Jinhui Wang
    • 3
    • 4
  • Carol Seger
    • 1
    • 5
  • Wanqun Yang
    • 2
  • Changhong Li
    • 1
  • Junjing Wang
    • 1
  • Jieying Feng
    • 2
  • Ling Weng
    • 1
  • Wenjie Jiang
    • 1
  • Ruiwang Huang
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for the Study of Applied Psychology, Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science of Guangdong Province, School of PsychologySouth China Normal UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Radiology, Guangdong Academy of Medical SciencesGuangdong General HospitalGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.Center for Cognition and Brain DisordersHangzhou Normal UniversityHangzhouChina
  4. 4.Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Research in Assessment of Cognitive ImpairmentsHangzhouChina
  5. 5.Department of Psychology and Program in Molecular, Cellular, and Integrative NeurosciencesColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

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