Species spatial distributions in a warm-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest in China

Abstract

Spatial distribution is fundamental for understanding species coexistence mechanisms in forest communities. Here we comprehensively explored fine-scale spatial patterns of tree species in a secondary warm-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest community in north China. Aggregated distribution patterns were predominant. Species functional traits had no significant effects on their spatial patterns. The aggregation intensity decreased with increasing DBH and abundance. The multivariate linear stepwise regression showed that abundance and maximum DBH were correlated with the aggregation intensity. Our results partially confirm that species attributes (abundance, DBH) and habitat heterogeneity may primarily contribute to spatial patterns and species coexistence in this secondary forest.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Baddeley A, Rubak E, Turner R (2015) Spatial point patterns: methodology and applications with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC Press, London

    Google Scholar 

  2. Condit R (1998) Tropical forest census plots: methods and results from Barro Colorado Island, Panama and a comparison with other plots. Springer, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  3. Condit R, Ashton PS, Baker P, Bunyavejchewin S, Gunatilleke S, Gunatilleke N et al (2000) Spatial patterns in the distribution of tropical tree species. Science 288(5470):1414–1418

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Gu Y, Zhang S, Li X, Li Z (2013) Relationship between diameter at breast height and age of endangered species Populus Euphratica Oliv. J Tarim Univ 25(2):66–69

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Guo Y, Lu J, Franklin SB, Wang Q, Xu Y, Zhang K, Bao D, Qiao X, Huang H, Lu Z, Jiang M (2013) Spatial distribution of tree species in a species-rich subtropical mountain forest in central China. Can J For Res 43(9):826–835

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Harms KE, Wright SJ, Calderon O, Hernandez A, Herre EA (2000) Pervasive density-dependent recruitment enhances seedling diversity in a tropical forest. Nature 404(6777):493–495

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Harms KE, Condit R, Hubbell SP, Foster RB (2001) Habitat associations of trees and shrubs in a 50-ha neotropical forest plot. J Ecol 89(6):947–959

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Hett JM, Loucks OL (1976) Age structure models of balsam fir and eastern hemlock. J Ecol 64(3):1029–1044

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Hubbell SP (2001) The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton

    Google Scholar 

  10. Lai J, Mi X, Ren H, Ma K (2009) Species-habitat associations change in a subtropical forest of China. J Veg Sci 20(3):415–423

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Leak WB (1975) Age distribution in virgin red spruce and northern hardwoods. Ecology 56(6):1451–1454

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Li L, Huang Z, Ye W, Cao H, Wei S, Wang Z, Lian J, Sun IF, Ma K, He F (2009) Spatial distributions of tree species in a subtropical forest of China. Oikos 118(4):495–502

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Liu HF, Xue DY, Sang WG (2014) Species diffusion and niche differentiation of the warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest in its functional development process. Chin Sci Bull 59:2359–2366 (in Chinese)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Lorimer CG (1980) Age structure and disturbance history of a southern Appalachian virgin forest. Ecology 61(5):1169–1184

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Lorimer CG, Krug AG (1983) Diameter distributions in even-aged stands of shade-tolerant and Midtolerant Tree Species. Am Midl Nat 109(2):331–345

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Meng X (1989) Analyses for structure of age in natural Larix gmelinii stands. J Beijing For Univ 11(3):17–23

    Google Scholar 

  17. Peng S, Xu G (2005) Seed traits of Castanopsis Chinensis and its effects on seed predation patterns in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve. Ecol Environ 14:493–497

    Google Scholar 

  18. Pu X, Jin G (2018) Conspecific and phylogenetic density-dependent survival differs across life stages in two temperate old-growth forests in Northeast China. For Ecol Manag 424:95–104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Seidler TG, Plotkin JB (2006) Seed dispersal and spatial pattern in tropical trees. PLoS Biol 4(11):e344

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Su H, Li G (2012) Simulating the response of the Quercus mongolica forest ecosystem carbon budget to asymmetric warming. Chin Sci Bull 57:1544–1552 (in Chinese)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Wang X, Hao Z, Zhang J, Lian J, Li B, Ye J, Yao X (2010a) Tree size distributions in an old-growth temperate forest. Oikos 118(1):25–36

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Wang X, Ji Y, Li B, Jian Z, Fei L, Hao Z (2010b) Spatial distributions of species in an old-growth temperate forest, northeastern China. Can J For Res 40(6):1011–1019

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Wiegand T, Moloney KA (2004) Rings, circles, and null-models for point pattern analysis in ecology. Oikos 104(2):209–229

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Wiegand T, Moloney KA (2014) Handbook of spatial point-pattern analysis in ecology. CRC Press, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  25. Wiegand T, Uriarte M, Kraft NJB, Shen G, Wang X, He F (2017) Spatially explicit metrics of species diversity, functional diversity, and phylogenetic diversity: insights into plant community assembly processes. Annu Rev Ecoll Evol Syst 48(1):329–351

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Wills C, Condit R (1999) Similar non-random processes maintain diversity in two tropical rainforests. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 266(1427):1445–1452

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Yu X, Zhou H, Luo T (2001) Patterns of damage by phytophagous insects on leaves of quercus liaotungensis. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica 25(5):553–560

    Google Scholar 

  28. Yu X, Zhou H, Luo T (2002) Interactions of insects and oak trees and their impacts on the regeneration of oakwoods. Biodivers Sci 10(2):225–231

    Google Scholar 

  29. Zhao Y, Zhang L (2005) Investigation of pests for wild trees in Changbai Mountains. J Northeast For Univ 33:107–109 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  30. Zhu Y, Comita LS, Hubbell SP, Ma K (2015) Conspecific and phylogenetic density–dependent survival differs across life stages in a tropical forest. J Ecol 103(4):957–966

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Zhu Y, Queenborough SA, Condit R, Hubbell SP, Ma K, Comita LS (2018) Density-dependent survival varies with species life-history strategy in a tropical forest. Ecol Lett 21(4):506

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Zou Y, Sang W, Wang S, Warrenthomas E, Liu Y, Yu Z, Wang C, Axmacher JC (2015) Diversity patterns of ground beetles and understory vegetation in mature, secondary, and plantation forest regions of temperate northern China. Ecol Evol 5(3):531–542

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to many field workers for their contributions to the establishment and first census of the 20-ha DLS forest dynamics plot. This study was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFC0505601), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31570630) and State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology (LFSE2015-13).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shunzhong Wang.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Project funding: This study was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFC0505601), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31570630) and State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology (LFSE2015-13).

The online version is available at http://www.springerlink.com

Corresponding editor: Chai Ruihai.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gu, H., Li, J., Qi, G. et al. Species spatial distributions in a warm-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest in China. J. For. Res. 31, 1187–1194 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-019-00928-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Spatial distributions
  • Aggregation intensity
  • Species functional trait
  • Secondary warm-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest